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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2933 matches for " Stuart Macgregor "
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GAIA: An easy-to-use web-based application for interaction analysis of case-control data
Stuart Macgregor, Imtiaz A Khan
BMC Medical Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-7-34
Abstract: Genetic Association Interaction Analysis (GAIA) is a web-based application for testing for statistical interactions between loci. It is based upon the widely used case-control study design for genetic association analysis and is designed so that non-specialists may routinely apply tests for interaction. GAIA allows simple testing of both additive and additive plus dominance interaction models and includes permutation testing to appropriately correct for multiple testing. The application will find use both in candidate gene based studies and in genome-wide association studies. For large scale studies GAIA includes a screening approach which prioritizes loci (based on the significance of main effects at one or both loci) for further interaction analysis.GAIA is available at http://www.bbu.cf.ac.uk/html/research/biostats.htm webciteGenetic association mapping is one of the primary tools used to identify loci involved in common complex disease. Such analyses are typically implemented by testing for a difference between allele frequencies at a locus in a population sample of cases and controls. However, such an approach only considers one locus at a time. Most common diseases will be genetically complex, with multiple loci contributing to disease susceptibility. Epistasis is the phenomenon where the phenotypic effect of one locus changes as a result of the genotype at one or more other loci. The importance of epistasis has been strongly emphasised recently [1-3], with the poor replication rate of human genetic association studies cited as being partly attributable to the lack of consideration given to epistatic effects [4,5]. Another recent paper [6] has suggested the power of large scale studies may be substantially improved by considering interactions among loci.Appropriate analysis of population data may be invaluable in identifying loci that exhibit significant interaction (in the statistical sense). Although analyses which consider interaction terms can be implement
The victim's experience of hijacking: an exploratory study
J Macgregor,WJ Schoeman,AD Stuart
Health SA Gesondheid , 2002, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v7i1.374
Abstract: This paper summarises a phenomenological study that was designed to explore the victim's lived experience of undergoing a motor vehicle hijacking. Opsomming Hierdie artikel verskaf 'n oorsig oor 'n fenomenologiese studio wat ontwerp is om die slagofferse geleefde ervaring van 'n motorkaping te ondersoek. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Unintended Consequences of Invasive Predator Control in an Australian Forest: Overabundant Wallabies and Vegetation Change
Nick Dexter, Matt Hudson, Stuart James, Christopher MacGregor, David B. Lindenmayer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069087
Abstract: Over-abundance of native herbivores is a problem in many forests worldwide. The abundance of native macropod wallabies is extremely high at Booderee National Park (BNP) in south-eastern Australia. This has occurred because of the reduction of exotic predators through an intensive baiting program, coupled with the absence of other predators. The high density of wallabies at BNP may be inhibiting the recruitment of many plant species following fire-induced recruitment events. We experimentally examined the post-fire response of a range of plant species to browsing by wallabies in a forest heavily infested with the invasive species, bitou bush Chrysanthemoides monilifera. We recorded the abundance and size of a range of plant species in 18 unfenced (browsed) and 16 fenced (unbrowsed) plots. We found the abundance and size of bitou bush was suppressed in browsed plots compared to unbrowsed plots. Regenerating seedlings of the canopy or middle storey tree species Eucalyptus pilularis, Acacia implexa, Allocasuarina littoralis, Breynia oblongifolia and Banksia integrifolia were either smaller or fewer in number in grazed plots than treatment plots as were the vines Kennedia rubicunda, Glycine tabacina and Glycine clandestina. In contrast, the understorey fern, Pteridium esculentum increased in abundance in the browsed plots relative to unbrowsed plots probably because of reduced competition with more palatable angiosperms. Twelve months after plots were installed the community structure of the browsed and unbrowsed plots was significantly different (P = 0.023, Global R = 0.091). The relative abundance of C. monilifera and P. esculentum contributed most to the differences. We discuss the possible development of a low diversity bracken fern parkland in Booderee National Park through a trophic cascade, similar to that caused by overabundant deer in the northern hemisphere. We also discuss its implications for broad scale fox control in southern Australian forests.
Urban regeneration as a public health intervention
Casimir MacGregor
Journal of Social Intervention : Theory and Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Urban regeneration as a public health intervention Urban design and planning are essential elements in how we navigate the social world. This is because urban environments typically constructed for social and cultural reasons, can create health inequalities within the urban landscape. Urban regeneration is the process of renewal or redevelopment of the social and built environment through policies, programmes and projects aimed at urban areas which have experienced multiple disadvantage. This article argues that urban regeneration is an important publichealth intervention and that by changing the urban physical, social and economic environment this can facilitate health development for disadvantaged communities. Stedelijke vernieuwing als interventie in de volksgezondheid Ruimtelijke ordening en stedelijke vernieuwing vormen belangrijke interventiemechanismen in sociale kwesties. Het stedelijk landschap krijgt immers mede vorm op grond van sociale en culturele overwegingen en be nvloedt daarmee het sociaal leven. Hierdoor kunnen gezondheidsverschillen en ongelijkheden ontstaan. In dit artikel wordt bijgevolg betoogd dat stedelijke vernieuwing een belangrijke interventie in de volksgezondheid kan vormen. Stedelijke vernieuwing is gedefinieerd als het vernieuwingsproces dat in gang wordt gezet door de herontwikkeling van de gebouwde omgeving (in de breedste zin van het woord: sociaal, economisch, cultureel en fysiek). Het veranderen van deze fysieke, sociale en economische omgeving kan een positieve invloed hebben op de gezondheid van burgers in een achterstandssituatie, en kan een kader zijn voor volksgezondheidbeleid.
Discussion Article: Disciplinary Boundaries for Creativity  [PDF]
Stuart Rowlands
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.21007
Abstract: Creativity is a very topical issue and indeed a political one. For example, the very notion of ‘little c creativity’ seems to be a reflection of the requirements of what could be described as a ‘Post-Fordist’ economy. However, the call to develop creativity in education is largely based on the idea of creativity as the production of novel ideas. The central argument of this article is that creativity cannot be seen purely in terms of novel ideas but that it is intrinsically bound with the teaching of the academic disciplines. It is within the context of creativity in the sense of transforming the disciplines that two paradoxes are discussed. The first paradox is that the truly creative act is not the preserve of the genius but the potential for the whole of humanity. Secondly, creativity involves both thinking within the constraints of the discipline and challenging those constraints. This implies the need for students to engage in meta-discourse, involving the nature and history of the subject-matter taught.
Nexus: A Quantum Theory of Space-Time, Gravity and the Quantum Vacuum  [PDF]
Stuart Marongwe
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33028

One of the main problems of contemporary physics is to find a quantum description of gravity. This present approach attempts to remedy the problem through the quantization of a finite but large flat Minkowski space-time by means of Fourier expansion of the displacement four vector\"\". By applying second quantization techniques, space-time emerges as a superposition of space-time eigen states or lattices of quantized space-time vibrations also known as gravitons. Each lattice element four vector is a graviton and traces out an elementary four volume (lattice cell). The stress-momentum tensor of each graviton defines its curvature and also the curvature of the associated lattice as described by General Relativity. The eigen states of space-time are found to be separated by a quantum of energy equal to the product of the Hubble constant and the Planck constant. The highest energy state is at Planck energies. This paper also shows that gravitons can be absorbed and emitted by the space-time lattice changing the volume of its primitive cells and that particles of observable matter are associated with a graviton whose frequency is equal to the particle’s Compton frequency which the lattice can absorb producing a perturbation in the lattice. The space-time lattice is found to be unstable and decays by radiating low energy gravitons of energy equal to the product of the Hubble constant and the Planck constant. This decay causes the space-time superstructure to expand. The graviton is seen a composite spin 2 particle made from a combination of spin half components of the displacement four vector elements. The spin symmetry of its constituent elements can breakdown to give rise to other vector or scalar bosons. Dark Matter is seen as a consequence of Bose-Einstein statistics of gravitons which results in some regions of the lattice having more energy than others.

Framing rights and responsibilities: accounts of women with a history of AIDS activism
MacGregor Hayley,Mills Elizabeth
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-11-s3-s7
Abstract: Background In South Africa, policy with respect to HIV/AIDS has had a strong rights-based framing in line with international trends and in keeping with the constitutional overhaul in the post-Apartheid era. There have also been considerable advances since 1994 towards legal enshrinement of sexual and reproductive health rights and in the provision of related services. Since HIV in this setting has heavily affected women of reproductive age, there has been discussion about the particular needs of this subgroup, especially in the context of service integration. This paper is concerned with the way in which HIV positive women conceptualise these rights and whether they wish and are able to actualise them in their daily lives. Methods In 2003 a group of women involved with the Treatment Action Campaign and Medicines Sans Frontières participated in an initiative to ‘map’ their bodies as affected by the virus. A book containing the maps and narratives was published and used as a political tool to pressure the government of the day to roll out antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the population. In 2008, the authors coordinated an initiative that involved conducting follow-up in-depth interviews in which five of these women reflected on those body maps and on how their lives had changed in the intervening five years since gaining the right to treatment through the public sector. Results Drawing upon this qualitative data and published sources, these new accounts are analysed in order to reflect the perspectives of these women living with chronic HIV with respect to their sexual relations and fertility desires. The paper reveals difficulties faced by these women in negotiating sexual relationships and disclosure of their HIV positive status. It focuses on how they perceive relative responsibilities in terms of taking preventative measures in sexual encounters. Women adopt tactics within a context characterised by various inequalities in order to ‘make do’, such as by remaining silent about their status. Concerns about childbearing can be addressed by information and support from a health care worker. Conclusions Women’s experience of HIV as a chronic illness and the need to adhere to ART, is linked to the way in which the language of responsibility can come to counter-balance a language of rights in treatment programmes.
The Role of Gender in the Perception of barriers to E-commerce Adoption in SMEs: An Australian Study
Robert MacGregor,Lejla Vrazalic
Communications of the IBIMA , 2008,
Abstract: The association between e-commerce barriers and gender has not been explored in-depth, even though it has implications for the adoption of this technology. This paper aims to add insight into how male and female SME owners/managers perceive different e-commerce barriers. The findings of a survey of 207 SMEs in Australia are presented, and show that females perceive technical issues to be a more important barrier than organisational issues. By contrast, male SME owners/managers are more concerned with the suitability and fit of e-commerce in the organisation, implying the need for a different focus in e-commerce initiatives. Additional findings show a greater differentiation of barriers within male owned/managed SMEs, which suggests the need for more customised e-commerce adoption program in these organisations.
A Novel Solid State Non-Dispersive Infrared CO2 Gas Sensor Compatible with Wireless and Portable Deployment
Desmond Gibson,Calum MacGregor
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130607079
Abstract: This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and photodiode (PD) light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second), longevity (>15 years), low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with “fit and forget” wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ’s, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery). Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration), comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing.
The “District Heating Wall”: A Synergistic Approach to Achieve Affordable Carbon Emission Reductions in Old Terraced Houses  [PDF]
Claire Frost, Fan Wang, Paul Woods, Robert MacGregor
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.323016
Abstract: One effective method to help the UK achieve GHG emission reduction targets is to reduce and decarbonise the heat demand of solid-walled terraced houses, as there are over 2.5 million such buildings making up a significant proportion of the whole building stock. Currently measures are achieved separately: the heat demand could be reduced by application of External Wall Insulation (EWI) or decarbonised through low carbon heat supplied by District Heating Networks (DHN). However, when installed individually, both these technologies face economic cost barriers. This study presents a novel solution that combines district heating pipes into external wall insulation—the District Heating Wall (DHWall) —and provides a systematic and quantitative assessment on its effects on the heating loads and its associated carbon emissions and capital costs. First a dynamic thermal model was developed to predict the heat demand of a case study terraced house with and without EWI. Two district heating networks were then sized to transport the required heat to the house-conventional and DHWall. The DHWall was compared to existing options and initial design parameters cal- culated. The study found application of EWI reduced space heating demand by 14%. The DHWall could reduce mains pipe inside diameter by 47% and reduce network pipe lengths by 20% and require no civils cost. Together these factors reduced DH capital costs by 76%. For one terraced house, the DHWall saved 34 tonnes of carbon over a 20year period compared to 8tonnes saved by EWI alone. Such savings were achieved at 39% of the cost/tonne. The mains pipe of the DHWall was calculated to have an inside diameter of 32.6 mm. The minimum insulation thickness required for solid walls to reach U-values of 0.3 W/m2K was calculated to be 120 mm of mineral wool or 65 mm of phenolic foam. The study concludes the DHWall has potential to contribute to GHG emission reductions by increasing market penetration of DH and EWI and should be investigated further.
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