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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461726 matches for " Stolow A. "
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The Dynamophore – Localization of Excited State Dynamics Studied by Time–Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Schalk O.,Boguslavskiy A. E.,Schuurman M. S.,Stolow A.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20134102037
Abstract: Photoinduced dynamics tend to localize at a confined region of a molecule, called dynamophore. Here, we show examples from time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.
Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of non-adiabatic dynamics in polyatomic molecules
Albert Stolow,Jonathan G. Underwood
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1002/9780470259498.ch6
Abstract: This review article discusses advances in the use of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy for the study of non-adiabatic processes in molecules. A theoretical treatment of the experiments is presented together with a number of experimental examples.
Probing Ultrafast Dynamics with Time-resolved Multi-dimensional Coincidence Imaging: Butadiene
Paul Hockett,Enrico Ripani,Andrew Rytwinski,Albert Stolow
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1080/09500340.2013.801525
Abstract: Time-resolved coincidence imaging of photoelectrons and photoions represents the most complete experimental measurement of ultrafast excited state dynamics, a multi-dimensional measurement for a multi-dimensional problem. Here we present the experimental data from recent coincidence imaging experiments, undertaken with the aim of gaining insight into the complex ultrafast excited-state dynamics of 1,3-butadiene initiated by absorption of 200 nm light. We discuss photoion and photoelectron mappings of increasing dimensionality, and focus particularly on the time-resolved photoelectron angular distributions (TRPADs), expected to be a sensitive probe of the electronic evolution of the excited state and to provide significant information beyond the time-resolved photoelectron spectrum (TRPES). Complex temporal behaviour is observed in the TRPADs, revealing their sensitivity to the dynamics while also emphasising the difficulty of interpretation of these complex observables. From the experimental data some details of the wavepacket dynamics are discerned relatively directly, and we make some tentative comparisons with existing ab initio calculations in order to gain deeper insight into the experimental measurements; finally, we sketch out some considerations for taking this comparison further in order to bridge the gap between experiment and theory.
Multi-channel Electronic and Vibrational Dynamics in Polyatomic High-order Harmonic Generation
A. Ferré,A. E. Boguslavskiy,M. Dagan,V. Blanchet,B. Bruner,F. Burgy,A. Camper,D. Descamps,B. Fabre,N. Fedorov,J. Gaudin,G. Geoffroy,J. Mikosch,S. Patchkovskii,S. Petit,T. Ruchon,H. Soifer,D. Staedter,I. Wilkinson,A. Stolow,N. Dudovich,Y. Mairesse
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6952
Abstract: High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels, each associated with a different orbital. Their unambiguous assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach, using unaligned SF$_6$ molecules as an example, where we combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Channel-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens four channels. Two of them, identified by monitoring the ellipticity dependence of the high-harmonic emission, are found to dominate the harmonic signal. A switch from the HOMO-3 to the HOMO-1 channel at 26 eV is confirmed by a phase jump in the harmonic emission, and by the differing dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a modus operandi for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected.
Reconstructing vibrational states in warm molecules using four-wave mixing with femtosecond laser pulses
Anders S. Mouritzen,Olga Smirnova,Stefanie Grafe,Rune Lausten,Albert Stolow
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: We propose a method to reconstruct the vibrational quantum state of molecules excited by a general excitation laser pulse. Unlike existing methods, we do not require the molecules before excitation to be in a pure state, allowing us to treat the important case of initially thermally excited molecules. Even if only a single initial level is appreciably populated, initial levels with small populations can still give major contributions to the unknown vibrational state, making it essential to take them into account. In addition to the excitation pulse, the method uses two incident, short laser pulses in a non-co-linear geometry to create four-wave mixing in the molecules. The measurements used in the reconstruction are spectra of the outgoing four-wave mixing pulse at different time delays of the excitation laser pulse. An important point is that the method does not require detailed knowledge of molecular transition moments between excited states nor of any of the incoming laser pulses, but circumvents this requirement by using one or more calibration laser pulses in a separate experiment either before or after the main data are recorded. The only requirements for the calibration laser pulses are that the constant parts of their spectrums should together cover the spectral range of the excitation laser pulse, and the constant part of each should have sufficient spectral overlap with one other calibration pulse to populate two of the same levels. Finally, we discuss the extension of the reconstruction method in this paper to more general situations, hereby presenting the new idea of quantum state reconstruction through perturbations with calibration.
Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Alterations to Cellular Metabolism by Domain 2 of the Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein
Nirmal Mazumder, Rodney K. Lyn, Ragunath Singaravelu, Andrew Ridsdale, Douglas J. Moffatt, Chih-Wei Hu, Han-Ruei Tsai, John McLauchlan, Albert Stolow, Fu-Jen Kao, John Paul Pezacki
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066738
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-opts hepatic lipid pathways to facilitate its pathogenesis. The virus alters cellular lipid biosynthesis and trafficking, and causes an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) that gives rise to hepatic steatosis. Little is known about how these changes are controlled at the molecular level, and how they are related to the underlying metabolic states of the infected cell. The HCV core protein has previously been shown to independently induce alterations in hepatic lipid homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate, using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, that expression of domain 2 of the HCV core protein (D2) fused to GFP is sufficient to induce an accumulation of larger lipid droplets (LDs) in the perinuclear region. Additionally, we performed fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides [NAD(P)H], a key coenzyme in cellular metabolic processes, to monitor changes in the cofactor’s abundance and conformational state in D2-GFP transfected cells. When expressed in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells, we observed that the D2-GFP induced accumulation of LDs correlated with an increase in total NAD(P)H fluorescence and an increase in the ratio of free to bound NAD(P)H. This is consistent with an approximate 10 fold increase in cellular NAD(P)H levels. Furthermore, the lifetimes of bound and free NAD(P)H were both significantly reduced – indicating viral protein-induced alterations in the cofactors’ binding and microenvironment. Interestingly, the D2-expressing cells showed a more diffuse localization of NAD(P)H fluorescence signal, consistent with an accumulation of the co-factor outside the mitochondria. These observations suggest that HCV causes a shift of metabolic control away from the use of the coenzyme in mitochondrial electron transport and towards glycolysis, lipid biosynthesis, and building of new biomass. Overall, our findings demonstrate that HCV induced alterations in hepatic metabolism is tightly linked to alterations in NAD(P)H functional states.
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004
Abstract:

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

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