Abstract:
The generalised longitudinal susceptibility $\chi({\bf q}, \omega)$ affords a sensitive measure of the spatial and temporal correlations of magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Starting with the monopole model, a mean field expression for $\chi({\bf q}, \omega)$ is derived as well as expressions for the mean square longitudinal field and induction at a point. Monopole motion is shown to be strongly correlated, and both spatial and temporal correlations are controlled by the dimensionless monopole density $x$ which defines the ratio of the magnetization relaxation rate and the monopole hop rate. Thermal effects and spin lattice relaxation are also considered. The derived equations are applicable in the temperature range where the Wien effect for magnetic monopoles is negligible. They are discussed in the context of existing theories of spin ice and the following experimental techniques: dc and ac-magnetization, neutron scattering, neutron spin echo, and longitudinal and transverse field $\mu$SR. The monopole theory is found to unify diverse experimental results, but several discrepancies between theory and experiment are identified. One of these, concerning the neutron scattering line shape, is explained by means of a phenomenological modification to the theory.

Abstract:
A frustrated system is one whose symmetry precludes the possibility that every pairwise interaction (``bond'') in the system can be satisfied at the same time. Such systems are common in all areas of physical and biological science. In the most extreme cases they can have a disordered ground state with ``macroscopic'' degeneracy, that is, one that comprises a huge number of equivalent states of the same energy. Pauling's description of the low temperature proton disorder in water ice was perhaps the first recognition of this phenomenon, and remains the paradigm. In recent years a new class of magnetic substance has been characterised, in which the disorder of the magnetic moments at low temperatures is precisely analogous to the proton disorder in water ice. These substances, known as spin ice materials, are perhaps the ``cleanest'' examples of such highly frustrated systems yet discovered. They offer an unparalleled opportunity for the study of frustration in magnetic systems at both an experimental and a theoretical level. This article describes the essential physics of spin ice, as it is currently understood, and identifies new avenues for future research on related materials and models.

Abstract:
Two dimensional condensed matter is realised in increasingly diverse forms that are accessible to experiment and of potential technological value. The properties of these systems are influenced by many length scales and reflect both generic physics and chemical detail. To unify their physical description is therefore a complex and important challenge. Here we investigate the distribution of experimentally estimated critical exponents, $\beta$, that characterize the evolution of the order parameter through the ordering transition. The distribution is found to be bimodal and bounded within a window $\sim 0.1 \le \beta \le 0.25$, facts that are only in partial agreement with the established theory of critical phenomena. In particular, the bounded nature of the distribution is impossible to reconcile with existing theory for one of the major universality classes of two dimensional behaviour - the XY model with four fold crystal field - which predicts a spectrum of non-universal exponents bounded only from below. Through a combination of numerical and renormalization group arguments we resolve the contradiction between theory and experiment and demonstrate how the "universal window" for critical exponents observed in experiment arises from a competition between marginal operators.

Abstract:
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition drives the unbinding of topological defects in many two-dimensional systems. In the two-dimensional Coulomb gas it corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition driven by charge deconfinement. We investigate the global topological properties of this transition, both analytically and by numerical simulation, using a lattice-field description of the two-dimensional Coulomb gas on a torus. The BKT transition is shown to be an ergodicity breaking between the topological sectors of the electric field, which implies a definition of topological order in terms of broken ergodicity. The breakdown of local topological order at the BKT transition leads to the excitation of global topological defects in the electric field, corresponding to different topological sectors. The quantized nature of these classical excitations, and their strict suppression by ergodicity breaking in the low-temperature phase, afford striking global signatures of topological-sector fluctuations at the BKT transition. We discuss how these signatures could be detected in experiments on, for example, magnetic films and cold-atom systems.

Abstract:
Dy2Ti2O7 is a geometrically frustrated magnetic material with a strongly correlated spin ice regime that extends from 1 K down to as low as 60 mK. The diffuse elastic neutron scattering intensities in the spin ice regime can be remarkably well described by a phenomenological model of weakly interacting hexagonal spin clusters, as invoked in other geometrically frustrated magnets. We present a highly refined microscopic theory of Dy2Ti2O7 that includes long-range dipolar and exchange interactions to third nearest neighbors and which demonstrates that the clusters are purely fictitious in this material. The seeming emergence of composite spin clusters and their associated scattering pattern is instead an indicator of fine-tuning of ancillary correlations within a strongly correlated state.

Abstract:
The Second Wien Effect describes the non-linear, non-equilibrium response of a weak electrolyte in moderate to high electric fields. Onsager's 1934 electrodiffusion theory along with various extensions has been invoked for systems and phenomena as diverse as solar cells, surfactant solutions, water splitting reactions, dielectric liquids, electrohydrodynamic flow, water and ice physics, electrical double layers, non-Ohmic conduction in semiconductors and oxide glasses, biochemical nerve response and magnetic monopoles in spin ice. In view of this technological importance and the experimental ubiquity of such phenomena, it is surprising that Onsager's Wien effect has never been studied by numerical simulation. Here we present simulations of a lattice Coulomb gas, treating the widely applicable case of a double equilibrium for free charge generation. We obtain detailed characterisation of the Wien effect and confirm the accuracy of the analytical theories as regards the field evolution of the free charge density and correlations. We also demonstrate that simulations can uncover further corrections, such as how the field-dependent conductivity may be influenced by details of microscopic dynamics. We conclude that lattice simulation offers a powerful means by which to investigate system-specific corrections to the Onsager theory, and thus constitutes a valuable tool for detailed theoretical studies of the numerous practical applications of the Second Wien Effect.

Abstract:
We predict the non-linear non-equilibrium response of a "magnetolyte", the Coulomb fluid of magnetic monopoles in spin ice. This involves an increase of the monopole density due to the second Wien effect---a universal and robust enhancement for Coulomb systems in an external field---which in turn speeds up the magnetization dynamics, manifest in a non-linear susceptibility. Along the way, we gain new insights into the AC version of the classic Wien effect. One striking discovery is that of a frequency window where the Wien effect for magnetolyte and electrolyte are indistinguishable, with the former exhibiting perfect symmetry between the charges. In addition, we find a new low-frequency regime where the growing magnetization counteracts the Wien effect. We discuss for what parameters best to observe the AC Wien effect in Dy$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$.

Abstract:
In this Comment we argue that Ho$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ does not exhibit a transition to a partially ordered state unlike what is argued in PRL 83, 1854 (1999), that it exhibits spin ice behavior, and that the experimental specific heat data by Siddharthan et al. can be accounted for in terms of a "dipolar spin ice" model by including an expected contibution from the nuclear Ho spins to the appropriate long-range treatment of the dipole-dipole interactions.

Abstract:
A global quantity, regardless of its precise nature, will often fluctuate according to a Gaussian limit distribution. However, in highly correlated systems, other limit distributions are possible. We have previously calculated one such distribution and have argued that this function should apply specifically, and in many instances, to global quantities that define a steady state. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the relevance of this prediction to natural phenomena. The river level fluctuations of the Danube are observed to obey our prediction, which immediately establishes a generic statistical connection between turbulence, criticality and company growth statistics.

Abstract:
Classic experimental data on helium films are transformed to estimate a finite-size phase order parameter that measures the thermal degradation of the condensate fraction in the two-dimensional superfluid. The order parameter is found to evolve thermally with the exponent $\beta = 3 \pi^2/128$, a characteristic, in analogous magnetic systems, of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition. Universal scaling near the BKT fixed point generates a collapse of experimental data on helium and ferromagnetic films, and implies new experiments and theoretical protocols to explore the phase order. These results give a striking example of experimental finite-size scaling in a critical system that is broadly relevant to two-dimensional Bose fluids.