Abstract:
Using a fully general relativistic implementation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics with no assumed symmetries in three spatial dimensions, the dynamics of magnetized, rigidly rotating neutron stars are studied. Beginning with fully consistent initial data constructed with Magstar, part of the Lorene project, we study the dynamics and stability of rotating, magnetized polytropic stars as models of neutron stars. Evolutions suggest that some of these rotating, magnetized stars may be minimally unstable occurring at the threshold of black hole formation.

Abstract:
The gravitational collapse of a triplet scalar field is examined assuming a hedgehog ansatz for the scalar field. Whereas the seminal work by Choptuik with a single, strictly spherically symmetric scalar field found a discretely self-similar (DSS) solution at criticality with echoing period $\Delta=3.44$, here a new DSS solution is found with period $\Delta=0.46$. This new critical solution is also observed in the presence of a symmetry breaking potential as well as within a global monopole. The triplet scalar field model contains Choptuik's original model in a certain region of parameter space, and hence his original DSS solution is also a solution. However, the choice of a hedgehog ansatz appears to exclude the original DSS.

Abstract:
An adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is implemented in a distributed environment using Message Passing Interface (MPI) to find solutions to the nonlinear sigma model. Previous work studied behavior similar to black hole critical phenomena at the threshold for singularity formation in this flat space model. This work is a follow-up describing extensions to distribute the grid hierarchy and presenting tests showing the correctness of the model.

Abstract:
Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

Abstract:
Previous studies of the semilinear wave equation in Minkowski space have shown a type of critical behavior in which large initial data collapse to singularity formation due to nonlinearities while small initial data does not. Numerical solutions in spherically symmetric Anti-de Sitter (AdS) are presented here which suggest that, in contrast, even small initial data collapse eventually. Such behavior appears analogous to the recent result of Ref. [1] that found that even weak, scalar initial data collapse gravitationally to black hole formation via a weakly turbulent instability. Furthermore, the imposition of a reflecting boundary condition in the bulk introduces a cut-off, below which initial data fails to collapse. This threshold appears to arise because of the dispersion introduced by the boundary condition.

Abstract:
The gravitational collapse of a complex scalar field in the harmonic map is modeled in spherical symmetry. Previous work has shown that a change of stability of the attracting critical solution occurs in parameter space from the discretely self-similarity critical (DSS) solution originally found by Choptuik to the continuously self-similar (CSS) solution found by Hirschmann and Eardley. In the region of parameter space in which the DSS is the attractor, a family of initial data is found which finds the CSS as its critical solution despite the fact that it has more than one unstable mode. An explanation of this is proposed in analogy to families that find the DSS in the region where the CSS is the attractor.

Abstract:
Static solutions in spherical symmetry are found for gravitating global monopoles. Regular solutions lacking a horizon are found for $\eta < 1/\sqrt{8\pi}$, where $\eta$ is the scale of symmetry breaking. Apparently regular solutions with a horizon are found for $1/\sqrt{8\pi} \le \eta \alt \sqrt{3/8\pi}$. Though they have a horizon, they are not Schwarzschild. The solution for $\eta = 1/\sqrt{8\pi}$ is argued to have a horizon at infinity. The failure to find static solutions for $\eta > \sqrt{3/8\pi} \approx 0.3455$ is consistent with findings that topological inflation begins at $\eta \approx 0.33$.

Abstract:
Solutions of the semilinear wave equation are found numerically in three spatial dimensions with no assumed symmetry using distributed adaptive mesh refinement. The threshold of singularity formation is studied for the two cases in which the exponent of the nonlinear term is either $p=5$ or $p=7$. Near the threshold of singularity formation, numerical solutions suggest an approach to self-similarity for the $p=7$ case and an approach to a scale evolving static solution for $p=5$.

Abstract:
Numerical solutions to the nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), a wave map from 3+1 Minkowski space to S^3, are computed in three spatial dimensions (3D) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). For initial data with compact support the model is known to have two regimes, one in which regular initial data forms a singularity and another in which the energy is dispersed to infinity. The transition between these regimes has been shown in spherical symmetry to demonstrate threshold behavior similar to that between black hole formation and dispersal in gravitating theories. Here, I generalize the result by removing the assumption of spherical symmetry. The evolutions suggest that the spherically symmetric critical solution remains an intermediate attractor separating the two end states.

Abstract:
The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.