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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2891 matches for " Steve Whalan "
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Thermal and Sedimentation Stress Are Unlikely Causes of Brown Spot Syndrome in the Coral Reef Sponge, Ianthella basta
Heidi M. Luter, Steve Whalan, Nicole S. Webster
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039779
Abstract: Background Marine diseases are being increasingly linked to anthropogenic factors including global and local stressors. On the Great Barrier Reef, up to 66% of the Ianthella basta population was recently found to be afflicted by a syndrome characterized by brown spot lesions and necrotic tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the role of environmental stressors in this syndrome. Specifically, the effects of elevated temperature and sedimentation on sponge health and symbiont stability in I. basta were examined. Neither elevated temperature nor increased sedimentation were responsible for the brown spot lesions, but sponges exposed to 32°C developed substantial discoloration and deterioration of their tissues, resulting in death after eight days and a higher microbial diversity in those samples. No shifts in the microbial community of I. basta were observed across a latitudinal gradient or with increased sedimentation, with three previously described symbionts dominating the community of all sponges (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaea). Conclusions/Significance Results from this study highlight the stable microbial community of I. basta and indicate that thermal and sedimentation stress are not responsible for the brown spot lesions currently affecting this abundant and ecologically important sponge species.
Crustose Coralline Algae and a Cnidarian Neuropeptide Trigger Larval Settlement in Two Coral Reef Sponges
Steve Whalan, Nicole S. Webster, Andrew P. Negri
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030386
Abstract: In sessile marine invertebrates, larval settlement is fundamental to population maintenance and persistence. Cues contributing to the settlement choices and metamorphosis of larvae have important implications for the success of individuals and populations, but cues mediating larval settlement for many marine invertebrates are largely unknown. This study assessed larval settlement in two common Great Barrier Reef sponges, Coscinoderma matthewsi and Rhopaloeides odorabile, to cues that enhance settlement and metamorphosis in various species of scleractinian coral larvae. Methanol extracts of the crustose coralline algae (CCA), Porolithon onkodes, corresponding to a range of concentrations, were used to determine the settlement responses of sponge larvae. Cnidarian neuropeptides (GLW-amide neuropeptides) were also tested as a settlement cue. Settlement in both sponge species was approximately two-fold higher in response to live chips of CCA and optimum concentrations of CCA extract compared to 0.2 μm filtered sea water controls. Metamorphosis also increased when larvae were exposed to GLW-amide neuropeptides; R. odorabile mean metamorphosis reached 42.0±5.8% compared to 16.0±2.4% in seawater controls and in C. matthewsi mean metamorphosis reached 68.3±5.4% compared to 36.7±3.3% in seawater controls. These results demonstrate the contributing role chemosensory communication plays in the ability of sponge larvae to identify suitable habitat for successful recruitment. It also raises the possibility that larvae from distinct phyla may share signal transduction pathways involved in metamorphosis.
Larval Behaviours and Their Contribution to the Distribution of the Intertidal Coral Reef Sponge Carteriospongia foliascens
Muhammad Azmi Abdul Wahab, Rocky de Nys, Nicole Webster, Steve Whalan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098181
Abstract: Sponges (Phylum Porifera) are an evolutionary and ecologically significant group; however information on processes influencing sponge population distributions is surprisingly limited. Carteriospongia foliascens is a common Indo-Pacific sponge, which has been reported from the intertidal to the mesophotic. Interestingly, the distribution of C. foliascens at inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef is restricted to the intertidal with no individuals evident in adjacent subtidal habitats. The abundance of C. foliascens and substrate availability was first quantified to investigate the influence of substrate limitation on adult distribution. Pre-settlement processes of larval spawning, swimming speeds, phototaxis, vertical migration, and settlement to intertidal and subtidal substrate cues were also quantified. Notably, suitable settlement substrate (coral rubble) was not limiting in subtidal habitats. C. foliascens released up to 765 brooded larvae sponge?1 day?1 during the day, with larvae (80%±5.77) being negatively phototactic and migrating to the bottom within 40 minutes from release. Subsequently, larvae (up to 58.67%±2.91) migrated to the surface after the loss of the daylight cue (nightfall), and after 34 h post-release >98.67% (±0.67) of larvae had adopted a benthic habit regardless of light conditions. Intertidal and subtidal biofilms initiated similar settlement responses, inducing faster (as early 6 h post-release) and more successful metamorphosis (>60%) than unconditioned surfaces. C. foliascens has a high larval supply and larval behaviours that support recruitment to the subtidal. The absence of C. foliascens in subtidal habitats at inshore reefs is therefore proposed to be a potential consequence of post-settlement mortalities.
Why Can’t Canada Spend More on Mental Health?  [PDF]
Steve Lurie
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68089
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) notes that mental illness accounts for 13% of the world’s disease burden, yet most countries under invest despite the social and economic costs of mental illness. It has been suggested that this lack of investment may be a result of stigma. A number of high income countries invest 10% or more in their mental health services. Although Canada is a high income country, its mental health spending is 7.2% according to the WHO Mental Health Atlas. This article will review the factors influencing Canada and its provinces’ under investment in mental health, compare its performance with other countries and make the case on why and how this could change.
Understanding the Relationships between Environmental and Social Risk Factors and Financial Performance of Global Infrastructure Projects  [PDF]
Daniil Kiose, Steve Keen
iBusiness (IB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2017.94007
Abstract: This study analyses the link between environmental and social risk (ESR) factors and the risk-return profile of infrastructure bonds. We provide support for the hypothesis that credit standing of infrastructure bonds is associated with ESR factors. Considering these factors along with bond and issuer specific information we discovered that several environmental and social risk covariates are strongly related to 1) expected risk-return profile of infrastructure bonds; and 2) the balance of risk around the expectation. Thus along with traditional drivers of bond risks (e.g. time to maturity, base interest rate, etc.) we find that also CO2 emission and percentage of independent directors emerge as important predictors. This study benefits from thoroughly developed, justified and validated non-parametric regression model used to derive key insights into the research question. This work makes a methodological contribution by applying non-parametric modelling techniques to study the financial risk of infrastructure projects. Moreover, it provides bond investors as well as policy makers with the guidance on where to focus their attention.
Evidence Based Medicine, in Precision Oncology  [PDF]
M. Nezami, Steve Hager
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.99057
Abstract: The disagreements in clinical data and therapy recommendations extracted from different sources/studies are a common finding in oncology research. Knowingly “biology is less reproducible than physics and mechanic engineering”, in order to overcome the disagreements and to find common grounds, we still rely on meta-analysis and systemic reviews for the highest level of evidence. To gather systemic review data base, a bibliographic search usually is conducted in the PubMed and in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to address a common clinical challenge. That said, frequently due to common conflicts between articles outcomes, an opinion of a third investigator is sought. Here in this article, we propose a rationale that could explain the differences in outcomes as a result of imperfect understanding of the current research database secondary to the unique biology of the tumor, rather than statistical interpretation on findings. We believe that the differences in findings merely are based on blinded inclusion criteria, and lack of accurate companion diagnostics to correlate the magnitude of response to each therapy. The objective of this article is to discuss a strategy to overcome such discordance by providing quantitative biological measures for genomic classification and correlation of tumor response to the selected targeted therapy. We further review such analysis in a case series of Her 2 positive breast cancer and conclude that
Dual Epidermal Growth Factor Inhibition and Multi Targeted Epigenetic Therapy (MTET)  [PDF]
Mohammad Nezami, Steve Hager
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.911072
Abstract: Since the discovery of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in treatment of lung cancer harboring such actionable targets, many lives have been prolonged. To the same extent, same group of patients have failed to benefit from this category of drugs, in long run, either initially or during the course of treatments, simply due to either known or unknown mechanism of resistance which occurs very often in the first few months after initiation of therapy. The resistance is 100 percent expected, and no patient is reported to be a waiver of such pattern. With best practices of oncology, the average duration of response is expected to be below 12 months [1]. About half of the resistance is caused by mutation at T790M in EGFR target, which can be revealed by liquid biopsy [1] [2]. The most recent studies have revealed the significant role of epigenome in controlling this complicated resistance pattern. We have learned that Histone deacetylation, as opposed to promoter methylation, may contribute to the epigenetic silencing and to EGFR TKI resistance in NSCLC [3] [4]. Here we present a case study with a model of combinational therapy that targets the EGFR molecule, (by small molecule inhibitor, Afatanib) with simultaneous epigenetic modification of the target, (by application of multitargeted epigenetic therapy (MTET) with significantly improved clinical results. We propose further trials are needed to support such hypothesis, which if proved, could significantly shift the current practices in management of this set of cases in lung adenocarcinomas.
Beliefs, Anxiety, and Avoiding Failure in Mathematics
Steve Chinn
Child Development Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/396071
Abstract: Mathematics anxiety has been the subject of several books and numerous research papers, suggesting that it is a significant issue for many people. Children and adults develop strategies to cope with this anxiety, one of which is avoidance. This paper presents data taken from over 2500 mathematics test papers in order to compare the levels of accuracy and the frequency of the use of the “no attempt” strategy, that is, avoidance, for arithmetic problems given to children aged from 10 years to adults aged up to 49 years from across the UK. 1. Introduction The difficulties in learning mathematics are a fascinating and complex area for study. The interactions between factors that can be attributed to the cognitive domain and those that can be attributed to the affective domain are many and varied. For example, anxiety has a negative influence on working memory [1]. Skemp ([2], page 127) suggested that the reflective activity of intelligence is most easily inhibited by anxiety. Lundberg and Sterner [3] claim that “over and above common cognitive demands and neurological representations and functions, performance in reading and arithmetic is influenced by a number of motivational and emotional factors such as need for achievement, task orientation, helplessness, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, self-concept….” Hattie [4] selects a pithy quote from O’Connor and Paunonen [5], “Whereas cognitive ability reflects what an individual can do, personality traits reflect what an individual will do.” The implications on learning of anxiety, motivation, self-worth, self-efficacy and attributional style are significant (e.g., [6–8]) particularly in mathematics where a curriculum may make inappropriate assumptions about how some children learn. Those assumptions may be rooted in beliefs about mathematics and how it can be taught and learnt. There are a number of beliefs about mathematics that are long established and embedded in its culture. This does not necessarily make them helpful in creating a positive student attitude to mathematics, especially for those who have difficulties with learning mathematics or, indeed, mathematics learning difficulties. For example, Mtetwa and Garofalo [9] discuss five beliefs, which include “mathematics problems have only one correct answer” and “computation problems must be solved by using a step-by-step algorithm.” The first belief leads children to perceive of mathematics as highly judgmental, that answers are right or they are wrong. The second belief leads children and their teachers to perceive of mathematics as a series of
Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes
Steve Turner
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/962923
Abstract: The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.
Chronic Wasting Disease—Prion Disease in the Wild
Steve Bunk
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020121
Abstract:
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