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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8124 matches for " Steve Chung "
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Epilepsy, Antiseizure Therapy, and Sleep Cycle Parameters
Vladimir Shvarts,Steve Chung
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/670682
Abstract: A reciprocal relationship exists between sleep and epilepsy. The quality of sleep is affected by the presence and frequency of seizures, type of antiepileptic therapy utilized, and coexisting primary sleep disorders. Daytime somnolence is one of the most common adverse effects of antiepileptic therapy, with specific pharmacologic agents exhibiting a unique influence on components of sleep architecture. The newer generation of antiseizure drugs demonstrates improved sleep efficiency, greater stabilization of sleep architecture, prolongation of REM sleep duration, and increased quality of life measures. The emerging field of chronoepileptology explores the relationship between seizures and circadian rhythms, aiming for targeted use of antiseizure therapies to maximize therapeutic effects and minimize the adverse events experienced by the patients. 1. Introduction Although the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsy has not been fully elucidated, it is well known that sleep disturbance provokes seizures and that seizure activity may influence the quality of sleep. In addition, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that are commonly used for seizure treatment affect sleep quality and architecture. Some AEDs tend to cause sleepiness or drowsiness while others can lead to insomnia. Sleep is an essential physiologic state that influences restorative and memory consolidating functions [1]. As previously recognized, the relationship between epilepsy and sleep disturbance is likely multifactorial: the direct effect of seizures, adverse events due to AED therapy, presence of psychiatric comorbidity, and coexisting sleep disorders all have the potential to contribute to alteration of sleep architecture and the subjective quality of sleep. Accordingly, one would expect that lack of sound sleep would significantly impact neurocognitive and psychological function, especially in patients treated with AEDs for their seizures. It is important for clinicians to understand the proclivity of a specific AED to affect the quality of sleep in order to guide epilepsy therapy and prevent disturbance of a patients’ nocturnal recovery. This review systematically evaluates the currently available literature, elucidating the effect of antiepileptic drug therapy upon the sleep cycle. A search of relevant primary research and review articles was performed utilizing the PubMed database. 2. Epilepsy and Sleep Sleep is classically divided into REM and non-REM phases as defined by the parameters of electroencephalography, respiration, eye movement, and electromyography. The non-REM phase
Surgical Treatment for Refractory Epilepsy: Review of Patient Evaluation and Surgical Options
Kristen M. Kelly,Steve S. Chung
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/303624
Abstract: Treatment of epilepsy often imposes an exposure to various antiepileptic drugs and requires long-term commitment and compliance from the patient. Although many new medications are now available for the treatment of epilepsy, approximately 30% of epilepsy patients still experience recurrent seizures and many experience undesirable side effects. Treatment of epilepsy requires a multidisciplinary approach. For those patients with medically refractory seizures, surgical treatment has increased in prevalence as techniques and devices improve. With increased utilization, proper patient selection has become crucial in evaluating appropriateness of surgical intervention. Epilepsy syndromes in which surgery has shown to be effective include mesial temporal sclerosis, cortical dysplasia, many pediatric epilepsy syndromes, and vascular malformations. Monitoring in an epilepsy monitoring unit with continuous scalp or intracranial EEG is an important step in localization of seizure focus. MRI is the standard imaging technique for evaluation of anatomy. However, other imaging studies including SPECT and PET have become more widespread, often offering increased diagnostic value in select situations. In addition, as an alternative or adjunct to surgical resection, implantable devices such as vagus nerve stimulators, deep brain stimulators, and direct brain stimulators could be useful in seizure treatment. 1. Introduction Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting up to two percent of the population worldwide, and almost two million people in the United States alone [1]. Treatment of epilepsy often imposes an exposure to various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and requires long-term commitment and compliance from the patient. Despite the advent of new AEDs over the past 15 years, approximately 30% of epilepsy patients experience recurrent seizures [2, 3] and many experience undesirable side effects. Therefore, there are still unmet needs for the treatment of epilepsy by AEDs alone, and epilepsy surgery can provide significant reduction or complete control of seizures for those patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Prior to providing epilepsy surgery for patients, clinicians should be able to answer the following two questions. (1) Is seizure focus identified with an acceptable confidence? (2) Is it safe to remove the known seizure focus in terms of neurological outcome? Therefore, it is important to comprehensively evaluate the patient whether they meet specific selection criteria which are discussed in more detail in the following chapters.
Dielectrophoretic Characterisation of Mammalian Cells above 100 MHz
Colin Chung,Martin Waterfall,Steve Pells,Anoop Menachery
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance , 2011, DOI: 10.5617/jeb.196
Abstract: Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a label-free technique for the characterization and manipulation of biological particles - such as cells, bacteria and viruses. Many studies have focused on the DEP cross-over frequency fxo1, where cells in a non-uniform electric field undergo a transition from negative to positive DEP. Determination of fxo1 provides a value for the membrane capacitance from the cell diameter, the means to monitor changes in cell morphology and viability, and the information required when devising DEP cell separation protocols. In this paper we describe the first systematic measurements of the second DEP cross-over frequency fxo2 that occurs at much higher frequencies. Theory indicates that fxo2 is sensitive to the internal dielectric properties of a cell, and our experiments on murine myeloma cells reveal that these properties exhibit temporal changes that are sensitive to both the osmolality and temperature of the cell suspending medium. doi:10.5617/jeb.196 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 64-71, 2011
Cognitive effects of lamotrigine versus topiramate as adjunctive therapy in older adults with epilepsy
Steve S. Chung,Susan Kerls,Ann Hammer,Robert Kustra
Neurology International , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/ni.2009.e6
Abstract: Older individuals may be more susceptible to cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs than are younger adults. This randomized, double-blind study compared the cognitive effects of lamotrigine (median maintenance dosage, 500.0 mg/d) and topiramate (median maintenance dosage, 300.0 mg/d) as adjunctive therapy for 16 weeks in patients ≥50 years of age. Fifty-one patients (lamotrigine, n=25; topiramate, n=26) were enrolled, and 28 patients (lamotrigine, n=15; topiramate, n=13) completed the study. In a combined analysis of all cognitive tests performed, no significant differences between treatment groups were noted. However, analyses of individual cognitive test results revealed that lamotrigine-treated patients had significantly better results on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, whereas topiramate-treated patients had significantly more favorable results on the Digit Cancellation Test and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Larger studies are needed to further clarify the differences in the cognitive effects of lamotrigine and topiramate in older patients.
Cardiac Murmur Prompting Diagnosis of Metastatic Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Testicular Neoplasia in an 18-Year-Old Patient
Steve Y. Chung,Benjamin Davies,Sheldon Bastacky,Dilip Gupta
The Scientific World Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2005.3
Abstract:
Juggling card sequences
Steve Butler,Fan Chung,Jay Cummings,Ron Graham
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Juggling patterns can be described by a sequence of cards which keep track of the relative order of the balls at each step. This interpretation has many algebraic and combinatorial properties, with connections to Stirling numbers, Dyck paths, Narayana numbers, boson normal ordering, arc-labeled digraphs, and more. Some of these connections are investigated with a particular focus on enumerating juggling patterns satisfying certain ordering constraints, including where the number of crossings is fixed.
Why Can’t Canada Spend More on Mental Health?  [PDF]
Steve Lurie
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68089
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) notes that mental illness accounts for 13% of the world’s disease burden, yet most countries under invest despite the social and economic costs of mental illness. It has been suggested that this lack of investment may be a result of stigma. A number of high income countries invest 10% or more in their mental health services. Although Canada is a high income country, its mental health spending is 7.2% according to the WHO Mental Health Atlas. This article will review the factors influencing Canada and its provinces’ under investment in mental health, compare its performance with other countries and make the case on why and how this could change.
Spontaneous, unriitting gross hematuria occurring one week after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy
Chung, Steve Y.;Chon, Chris H.;Ng, Christopher S.;Fuchs, Gerhard J.;
International braz j urol , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382004000500007
Abstract: complications associated with the ureteral stump after nephrectomies rarely occur, especially after donor nephrectomies. the potential for the slippage of clips is a well-known event associated with vascular ligations. we report on the first case of clip slippage from the ureter and describe diagnosis and managient of the most extrie of morbid presentations.
Integrative analysis of next generation sequencing for small non-coding RNAs and transcriptional regulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Dominik Beck, Steve Ayers, Jianguo Wen, Miriam B Brandl, Tuan D Pham, Paul Webb, Chung-Che Chang, Xiaobo Zhou
BMC Medical Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-4-19
Abstract: Patients' primary marrow cells were screened for short RNAs (RNA-seq) using next generation sequencing. Exon arrays from the same cells were used to profile gene expression and additional measures on 98 patients obtained. Integrative bioinformatics algorithms were proposed, and pathway and ontology analysis performed.In low-grade MDS, observations implied extensive post-transcriptional regulation via microRNAs (miRNA) and the recently discovered Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNA). Large expression differences were found for MDS-associated and novel miRNAs, including 48 sequences matching to miRNA star (miRNA*) motifs. The detected species were predicted to regulate disease stage specific molecular functions and pathways, including apoptosis and response to DNA damage. In high-grade MDS, results suggested extensive post-translation editing via transfer RNAs (tRNAs), providing a potential link for reduced apoptosis, a hallmark for this disease stage. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed important regulatory roles for MDS linked miRNAs and TFs, and strengthened the biological significance of miRNA*. The "RNA polymerase II promoters" were identified as the tightest controlled biological function. We suggest their control by a miRNA dominated feedback loop, which might be linked to the dramatically different miRNA amounts seen between low and high-grade MDS.The presented results provide novel findings that build a basis of further investigations of diagnostic biomarkers, targeted therapies and studies on MDS pathogenesis.Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of heterogeneous hematopoietic stem cell disorders, which often lead to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This group of diseases is most common in the growing demographic of the late sixties-early seventies [1]. In the United States the estimated number of new cases per year is about 40,000-76,000 with an attached cost of about 30.000 USD per person and year.MDS is characterized by ineffective bone marrow hematopoiesis, le
Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis
Henghang Tsai, Teck Low, Steve Freeby, Aran Paulus, Kalpana Ramnarayanan, Chung-pui Cheng, Hon-chiu Leung
Proteome Science , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-5-18
Abstract: Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE) in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS), which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE.The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein separation tool.Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is an indispensable technique in protein separation. This technique has only changed marginally over the past three decades [1]. Despite its popularity, SDS-PAGE, as well as native PAGE for protein separation, suffers the basic limitation of band broadening by diffusion and trapping of biomolecules in gel matrices. Nevertheless, protein separation by SDS-PAGE interfaced with mass spectrometry (MS) has currently emerged as the method of choice in the forefront of proteomics. Thus, new t
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