Abstract:
The pseudoscalar ``hairpin'' vertex (i.e. quark-disconnected vertex) plays a key role in quenched chiral perturbation theory. Direct calculations using lattice simulations find that it has a significant dependence on quark mass. I show that this mass dependence can be used to determine the quenched Gasser-Leutwyler constant L5. This complements the calculation of L5 using the mass dependence of the axial decay constant of the pion. In an appendix, I discuss power counting for quenched chiral perturbation theory and describe the particular scheme used in this paper.

Abstract:
This is the written version of four lectures given at the 1994 TASI. My aim is to explain the essentials of lattice calculations, give an update on (though not a review of) the present status of calculations of phenomenologically interesting quantities, and to provide an understanding of the various sources of uncertainty in the results. I illustrate the important issues using the examples of the kaon B-parameter ($B_K$) and various quantities related to $B$-meson physics. Contents: 1. Why do we need lattice QCD? 2. Basics of Euclidean Lattice Field Theory. 3. Discretizing QCD. 4. Simulations. 5. Numerical Results from quenched QCD. 6. Anatomy of a calculation: $B_K$. 7. Heavy mesons on the lattice. 8. A final flourish

Abstract:
I describe recent developments in quenched chiral perturbation theory (QChPT) and the status of weak matrix elements involving light quarks. I illustrate how, with improved statistical errors, and with calculations of the masses of baryons containing non-degenerate quarks, there is now a clear need for extrapolations of higher order than linear in the quark mass. I describe how QChPT makes predictions for the functional forms to use in such extrapolations, and emphasize the distinction between contributions coming from chiral loops which are similar to those present in unquenched theories, and those from $\eta'$ loops which are pure quenched artifacts. I describe a fit to the baryon masses using the predictions of QChPT. I give a status report on the numerical evidence for $\eta'$ loops, concluding that they are likely present, and are characterized by a coupling $\delta=0.1-0.2$. I use the difference between chiral loops in QCD and quenched QCD to estimate the quenching errors in a variety of quantities. I then turn to results for matrix elements, largely from quenched simulations. Results for quenched decay constants cannot yet be reliably extrapolated to the continuum limit. By contrast, new results for $B_K$ suggest a continuum, ``quenched'' value of $B_K(NDR, 2 GeV) = 0.5977 \pm 0.0064 \pm 0.0166$, based on a quadratic extrapolation in $a$. The theoretical basis for using a quadratic extrapolation has been confirmed. For the first time there is significant evidence that unquenching changes $B_K$, and my estimate for the value in QCD is $B_K(NDR, 2 GeV) = 0.66 \pm 0.02 \pm 0.11$. Here the second error is a conservative estimate of the systematic error due to uncertainties in the effect of quenching. A less conservative viewpoint reduces $0.11$ to $0.03$.

Abstract:
Lattice QCD with two flavors of Wilson fermions can exhibit spontaneous breaking of flavor and parity, with the resulting "Aoki phase" characterized by the non-zero expectation value $<\bar\psi \gamma_5 \tau_3 \psi>\ne0$. This phenomenon can be understood using the chiral effective theory appropriate to the Symanzik effective action. Within this standard analysis, the flavor-singlet pseudoscalar expectation value vanishes: $=0$. A recent reanalysis has questioned this understanding, arguing that either the Aoki-phase is unphysical, or that there are additional phases in which $\ne0$. The reanalysis uses the properties of probability distribution functions for observables built of fermion fields and expansions in terms of the eigenvalues of the hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator. Here I show that the standard understanding of the Aoki-phase is, in fact, consistent with the approach used in the reanalysis. Furthermore, if one assumes that the standard understanding is correct, one can use the methods of the reanalysis to derive lattice generalizations of the continuum sum rules of Leutwyler and Smilga.

Abstract:
I study the leading effects of discretization errors on the low energy part of the spectrum of the Hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator in infinite volume. The method generalizes that used to study the spectrum of the Dirac operator in the continuum, and uses partially quenched chiral perturbation theory for Wilson fermions. The leading-order corrections are proportional to a^2 (a being the lattice spacing). At this order I find that the method works only for one choice of sign of one of the three low energy constants describing discretization errors. If these constants have the relative magnitudes expected from large N_c arguments, then the method works if the theory has an Aoki phase for m of order a^2, but fails if there is a first-order transition. In the former case, the dependence of the gap and the spectral density on m and a^2 are determined. In particular, the gap is found to vanish more quickly as m_pi^2-> 0 than in the continuum. This reduces the region where simulations are safe from fluctuations in the gap.

Abstract:
I discuss the properties of pions in ``partially quenched'' theories, i.e. those in which the valence and sea quark masses, $m_V$ and $m_S$, are different. I point out that for lattice fermions which retain some chiral symmetry on the lattice, e.g. staggered fermions, the leading order prediction of the chiral expansion is that the mass of the pion depends only on $m_V$, and is independent of $m_S$. This surprising result is shown to receive corrections from loop effects which are of relative size $m_S \ln m_V$, and which thus diverge when the valence quark mass vanishes. Using partially quenched chiral perturbation theory, I calculate the full one-loop correction to the mass and decay constant of pions composed of two non-degenerate quarks, and suggest various combinations for which the prediction is independent of the unknown coefficients of the analytic terms in the chiral Lagrangian. These results can also be tested with Wilson fermions if one uses a non-perturbative definition of the quark mass.

Abstract:
I summarize recent progress in lattice gauge theory, with particular emphasis on results from numerical simulations. A major success has been the determination of the light hadron spectrum in the quenched approximation with sufficient accuracy to expose statistically significant disagreements with the experimental spectrum. The differences are, however, fairly small, $\sim 5-10%$. The data are also accurate enough to show evidence for artifacts of quenching predicted by chiral perturbation theory. I give an update on results for light quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the decay constants and B-parameters of heavy-light mesons. Most of these are known in the quenched approximation to $\sim 10%$ accuracy or better, and preliminary estimates of quenching errors are of comparable size. One exception is the light quark masses, for which the quenching errors appear to be larger. I discuss the computational requirements for simulations of QCD with all approximations controlled, and argue that they will likely begin once computers sustain about 10 Teraflops. This is 30-40 times faster than present state-of-the-art machines. This estimate assumes that improvements in the discretization of lattice fermions are sufficient to allow continuum extrapolations to be made with a minimum lattice spacing of $\approx 0.1 $fm. I review results obtained with improved discretizations and conclude that they satisfy this requirement in most cases. Examples of successful improvement include the calculation of the glueball spectrum and excited heavy-quark potentials in pure Yang-Mills theory. Finally, I discuss recent developments which may allow simulations of QCD with full chiral symmetry even at finite lattice spacing.

Abstract:
These lectures describe the use of effective field theories to extrapolate results from the parameter region where numerical simulations of lattice QCD are possible to the physical parameters (physical quark masses, infinite volume, vanishing lattice spacing, etc.). After a brief introduction and overview, I discuss three topics: 1) Chiral perturbation theory in the continuum; 2) The inclusion of discretization effects into chiral perturbation theory, focusing on the application to Wilson and twisted-mass lattice fermions; 3) Extending chiral perturbation theory to describe partially quenched QCD.

Abstract:
Recently, a method for O(a) improvement of composite operators has been proposed which uses the large momentum behavior of fixed gauge quark and gluon correlation functions (G. Martinelli et al., hep-lat/0106003). A practical problem with this method is that a particular improvement coefficient, $c_{NGI}$, which has a gauge non-covariant form, is difficult to determine. Here I work out the size of the errors made in improvement coefficients and physical quantities if one does not include the $c_{NGI}$ term.

Abstract:
I give a status report on the validity of the so-called ``fourth-root trick'', i.e. the procedure of representing the determinant for a single fermion by the fourth root of the staggered fermion determinant. This has been used by the MILC collaboration to create a large ensemble of lattices using which many quantities of physical interest have been and are being calculated. It is also used extensively in studies of QCD thermodynamics. The main question is whether the theory so defined has the correct continuum limit. There has been significant recent progress towards answering this question. After recalling the issue, and putting it into a broader context of results from statistical mechanics, I critically review the new work. I also address the related issue of the impact of treating valence and sea quarks differently in rooted simulations, discuss whether rooted simulations at finite temperature and density are subject to additional concerns, and briefly update results for quark masses using the MILC configurations. An answer to the question in the title is proposed in the summary.