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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17148 matches for " Stephen Liao "
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Exploring The Contribution of Unlabeled Data in Financial Sentiment Analysis
Jimmy SJ. Ren,Wei Wang,Jiawei Wang,Stephen Shaoyi Liao
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: With the proliferation of its applications in various industries, sentiment analysis by using publicly available web data has become an active research area in text classification during these years. It is argued by researchers that semi-supervised learning is an effective approach to this problem since it is capable to mitigate the manual labeling effort which is usually expensive and time-consuming. However, there was a long-term debate on the effectiveness of unlabeled data in text classification. This was partially caused by the fact that many assumptions in theoretic analysis often do not hold in practice. We argue that this problem may be further understood by adding an additional dimension in the experiment. This allows us to address this problem in the perspective of bias and variance in a broader view. We show that the well-known performance degradation issue caused by unlabeled data can be reproduced as a subset of the whole scenario. We argue that if the bias-variance trade-off is to be better balanced by a more effective feature selection method unlabeled data is very likely to boost the classification performance. We then propose a feature selection framework in which labeled and unlabeled training samples are both considered. We discuss its potential in achieving such a balance. Besides, the application in financial sentiment analysis is chosen because it not only exemplifies an important application, the data possesses better illustrative power as well. The implications of this study in text classification and financial sentiment analysis are both discussed.
Optimal Control Theory in Intelligent Transportation Systems Research - A Review
Jimmy SJ. Ren,Wei Wang,Stephen Shaoyi Liao
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Continuous motorization and urbanization around the globe leads to an expansion of population in major cities. Therefore, ever-growing pressure imposed on the existing mass transit systems calls for a better technology, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), to solve many new and demanding management issues. Many studies in the extant ITS literature attempted to address these issues within which various research methodologies were adopted. However, there is very few paper summarized what does optimal control theory (OCT), one of the sharpest tools to tackle management issues in engineering, do in solving these issues. It{\textquoteright}s both important and interesting to answer the following two questions. (1) How does OCT contribute to ITS research objectives? (2) What are the research gaps and possible future research directions? We searched 11 top transportation and control journals and reviewed 41 research articles in ITS area in which OCT was used as the main research methodology. We categorized the articles by four different ways to address our research questions. We can conclude from the review that OCT is widely used to address various aspects of management issues in ITS within which a large portion of the studies aimed to reduce traffic congestion. We also critically discussed these studies and pointed out some possible future research directions towards which OCT can be used.
An Unsupervised Feature Learning Approach to Improve Automatic Incident Detection
Jimmy SJ. Ren,Wei Wang,Jiawei Wang,Stephen Liao
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Sophisticated automatic incident detection (AID) technology plays a key role in contemporary transportation systems. Though many papers were devoted to study incident classification algorithms, few study investigated how to enhance feature representation of incidents to improve AID performance. In this paper, we propose to use an unsupervised feature learning algorithm to generate higher level features to represent incidents. We used real incident data in the experiments and found that effective feature mapping function can be learnt from the data crosses the test sites. With the enhanced features, detection rate (DR), false alarm rate (FAR) and mean time to detect (MTTD) are significantly improved in all of the three representative cases. This approach also provides an alternative way to reduce the amount of labeled data, which is expensive to obtain, required in training better incident classifiers since the feature learning is unsupervised.
Treatment Recommendations among Radiation Oncologists in the Treatment of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Perineural Invasion  [PDF]
Upendra Parvathaneni, Madhu Shetti, Daniel Berg, Seesha Takagishi, George E. Laramore, Chrysalyne D. Schmults, Anokhi Jambusaria-Pahlajani, Stephen D. Hess, Marvin Heyboer III, Jay J. Liao
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.711082
Abstract: Purpose: Post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) for resected cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) with perineural invasion (PNI) is controversial. Therefore, we conducted a survey to review treatment recommendations among Radiation Oncologists (ROs) in the management of CSCC with PNI. Materials & Methods: In March 2011, we contacted all ROs and trainees in the US through email addresses listed in the 2009 ASTRO directory. Our web-based survey presented clinical vignettes involving Mohs micrographically resected CSCC with microscopic PNI (mPNI) or clinical PNI (cPNI). For each vignette, ROs were asked to indicate if PORT was appropriate and to further specify the dose and volume to treat. Results: Three hundred fifty two responses were completed and analyzed. The majority of ROs (72%) had over 10 years of post residency experience. 64% of the sampled ROs had a special interest in treating head and neck cancers, and 64% treated 4 or more cases per year. Approximately 95% recommended PORT for cPNI whereas 59% recommended PORT for mPNI. Post residency experience (10+ yrs vs. <10 yrs) was associated with a greater propensity to recommend PORT for mPNI (48% vs. 30%, p = 0.005) and for mPNI of deep subcutaneous non-named nerve involvement (80% vs. 60%, p = 0.001). ROs treating 8 or more cases per year (vs. <7) were more likely to recommend PORT for mPNI in immunocompromised patients (74% vs. 57%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates significant variability among ROs in the management of CSCC with mPNI. For cases of cPNI, an overwhelming majority recommended PORT. In cases of mPNI, there was no consensus for recommending PORT, although
The Rough Method for Spatial Data Subzone Similarity Measurement  [PDF]
Weihua Liao
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.41006
Abstract: There are two methods for GIS similarity measurement problem, one is cross-coefficient for GIS attribute similarity measurement, and the other is spatial autocorrelation that is based on spatial location. These methods can not calculate subzone similarity problem based on universal background. The rough measurement based on membership function solved this problem well. In this paper, we used rough sets to measure the similarity of GIS subzone discrete data, and used neighborhood rough sets to calculate continuous data’s upper and lower approximation. We used neighborhood particle to calculate membership function of continuous attribute, then to solve continuous attribute’s subzone similarity measurement problem.
Discussion on Dry Cough with Yellow Greasy Coating  [PDF]
Xian Liao
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2012.31008
Abstract: This paper discussed the pathogenesis and the principle of treatment of the dry cough with yellow greasy coating. Combined the clinic observation with the TCM theory, we found that the main reasons about this dry cough are dryness in lung and stagnated phlegm. And heavy dosages herbs which can nourish Yin and clear away the heat should be adopted.
Intention to Create Legal Relations and the Reform of Contract Law: A Conservative Approach in the Modern Global Era  [PDF]
Zhixiong Liao
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.42011
Abstract: This paper is partially to refute the submissions by Gulati’s article recently published on Beijing Law Review which proposes abandoning the requirement of proving intention to create legal relations for the formation of an enforceable contract. After a critical analysis of the abandonists’ arguments, this paper argues that intention to create legal relations is the “marrow of contractual relationships” and the arguments for abandoning such a requirement because of the existence of consideration and/or offer and acceptance as test(s) of contractual enforceability is untenable and unconvincing. Consideration and/or offer and acceptance may be evidence of serious intention to be bound somehow but unnecessary intention to be bound legally. For a number of reasons, the doctrine of consideration is very unlikely to work any better than the intention to create legal relations test. If a test of contractual enforceability must be abandoned, that should be the doctrine of consideration rather than the intention to create legal relations. This paper compares the current positions of some common law jurisdictions, upholds the needs of stability, consistency, and the harmonisation of contract law in the modern global era, and proposes a conservative approach of contract law reform regarding the intention requirement and the related presumptions, that is, all common law jurisdictions should “go back” to the orthodox English position.
Data Fusion with Optimized Block Kernels in LS-SVM for Protein Classification  [PDF]
Li Liao
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B048

In this work, we developed a method to efficiently optimize the kernel function for combined data of various different sources with their corresponding kernels being already available. The vectorization of the combined data is achieved by a weighted concatenation of the existing data vectors. This induces a kernel matrix composed of the existing kernels as blocks along the main diagonal, weighted according to the corresponding the subspaces span by the data. The induced block kernel matrix is optimized in the platform of least-squares support vector machines simultaneously as the LS-SVM is being trained, by solving an extended set of linear equations, other than a quadratically constrained quadratic programming as in a previous method. The method is tested on a benchmark dataset, and the performance is significantly improved from the highest ROC score 0.84 using individual data source to ROC score 0.92 with data fusion.

Whether China’s State-Owned Commercial Banks Constitute “Public Bodies” within the Meaning of Article 1.1 (a) (1) of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures: Analysis of US—Definitive Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products from China  [PDF]
Yi Liao
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.44025

US—Definitive Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products from China is the initial WTO dispute in which China claims that US-countervailing duties on certain products from China are inconsistent with the obligations of the United States under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (“SCM Agreement”). In this dispute, the specific meaning of “public bodies” within Article 1.1 (a) (1) of the SCM Agreement and the question of whether China’s state-owned commercial banks (“SOCB”) constitute “public bodies” are the heart of the matter. This thesis will analyze these issues by examining the reports of the Panel and the Appellate Body. In particular, the thesis will argue that the theory of the governmental function advanced by China is much more persuasive than that of governmental control in terms of defining “public bodies”. Although China’s SOCBs have gone through several stages of reforms, the majority ownership of them has remained in the hands of the Chinese government. However, SOCBs’ policy-oriented nature has been largely marginalized, and currently they only perform subsidiary governmental functions. In this regard, the conclusion this thesis will attempt to reach is that the WTO system needs to give developing countries like China more policy flexibility in order to upgrade their international trade participation to the level required and followed by developed countries. During the process, developing countries should also make the best use of their latent comparative advantage and the effects of globalization.

The Recent Amendment to China’s Consumer Law: An Imperfect Improvement and Proposal for Future Changes  [PDF]
Zhixiong Liao
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.53016
Abstract: Recently, an Amendment Act (“the Amendment”) was made to China’s core legislation on consumer protection—the Consumers’ Rights and Interests Protection Law (“Consumer Protection Act 1993”). The Amendment comes into force on China’s “Consumers’ Day” of 2014. The Amendment brings some great and significant changes to the principal Act in response to the need of China’s changed and changing market and society. This paper analyses the most significant changes and argues that the Amendment is far from being satisfactory, in that some important issues/problems including, inter alia, the want of a clear legal definition of “consumer”, are left unaddressed. It also articulates the rationale for special protection to consumer and proposes further amendments including a “good” definition of “consumer” that shall be adopted in the future as soon as practical.
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