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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 306737 matches for " Stephen J. Page "
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Erratum to “Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation”
Brittany Hand,Stephen J. Page,Susan White
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/542638
Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation
Brittany Hand,Stephen J. Page,Susan White
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/462681
Abstract: Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale’s (NIHSS’s) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant . Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. 1. Introduction Upper extremity (UE) hemiparesis remains one of the most frequent stroke-induced impairments [1] and considerably undermines performance of valued activities. Yet, despite weeks of rehabilitation, 50% of patients retain some degree of UE weakness [2] and up to seventy percent remain unable to functionally use their paretic UEs [3] in the months after stroke. Scores on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [4] (NIHSS) are associated with stroke outcomes [5–7], causing the NIHSS to be recommended for determining “appropriate treatment and predicting patient outcome” [8]. However, the “functional” measures with which the NIHSS has been associated in stroke trials [7, 9, 10] (e.g., Glasgow Coma Scale; Barthel Index) do not directly assess active UE movement or functional UE activity performance. For example, the Barthel Index ascertains the level of help that a patient requires to carry out various daily activities, but not the actual level of movement that the patient exhibits or how active movements conspire to facilitate participation in valued activities. These levels of help may be related to adaptive equipment use, available care partner support, or other factors, but do not tell the user how the client has actually responded to treatment
Transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis and precursor pathways in hop (Humulus lupulus)
Shawn M Clark, Vinidhra Vaitheeswaran, Stephen J Ambrose, Randy W Purves, Jonathan E Page
BMC Plant Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-13-12
Abstract: Transcripts encoding all the enzymes of BCAA metabolism were significantly more abundant in lupulin glands, indicating that BCAA biosynthesis and subsequent degradation occurs in these specialized cells. Branched-chain acyl-CoAs and bitter acids were present at higher levels in glands compared with leaves and cones. RNA-seq analysis showed the gland-specific expression of the MEP pathway, enzymes of sucrose degradation and several transcription factors that may regulate bitter acid biosynthesis in glands. Two branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) enzymes, HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2, were abundant, with gene expression quantification by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicating that HlBCAT1 was specific to glands while HlBCAT2 was present in glands, cones and leaves. Recombinant HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2 catalyzed forward (biosynthetic) and reverse (catabolic) reactions with similar kinetic parameters. HlBCAT1 is targeted to mitochondria where it likely plays a role in BCAA catabolism. HlBCAT2 is a plastidial enzyme likely involved in BCAA biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the hop BCATs and those from other plants showed that they group into distinct biosynthetic (plastidial) and catabolic (mitochondrial) clades.Our analysis of the hop transcriptome significantly expands the genomic resources available for this agriculturally-important crop. This study provides evidence for the lupulin gland-specific biosynthesis of BCAAs and prenyl diphosphates to provide precursors for the production of bitter acids. The biosynthetic pathway leading to BCAAs in lupulin glands involves the plastidial enzyme, HlBCAT2. The mitochondrial enzyme HlBCAT1 degrades BCAAs as the first step in the catabolic pathway leading to branched chain-acyl-CoAs.The female inflorescences (‘cones’) of Humulus lupulus L. (hop, Cannabaceae) contain prenylated acylphloroglucinols and prenylchalcones (e.g. xanthohumol) that are important for the brewing industry and have potential medicinal uses [1-3]. The acylphloroglucinols
Automated identification of protein-ligand interaction features using Inductive Logic Programming: a hexose binding case study
Jose C A Santos, Houssam Nassif, David Page, Stephen H Muggleton, Michael J E Sternberg
BMC Bioinformatics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-13-162
Abstract: The rules induced by ProGolem detect interactions mediated by aromatics and by planar-polar residues, in addition to less common features such as the aromatic sandwich. The rules also reveal a previously unreported dependency for residues CYS and LEU. They also specify interactions involving aromatic and hydrogen bonding residues. This paper shows that Inductive Logic Programming implemented in ProGolem can derive rules giving structural features of protein/ligand interactions. Several of these rules are consistent with descriptions in the literature.In addition to confirming literature results, ProGolem’s model has a 10-fold cross-validated predictive accuracy that is superior, at the 95% confidence level, to another ILP system previously used to study protein/hexose interactions and is comparable with state-of-the-art statistical learners.
Microarray analysis of a salamander hopeful monster reveals transcriptional signatures of paedomorphic brain development
Robert B Page, Meredith A Boley, Jeramiah J Smith, Srikrishna Putta, Stephen R Voss
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-199
Abstract: Transcript abundances from whole brain and pituitary were estimated via microarray analysis on four different days post hatching (42, 56, 70, 84 dph) and regression modeling was used to independently identify genes that were differentially expressed as a function of time in both species. Collectively, more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as unique to the axolotl (n = 76) and tiger salamander (n = 292) than were identified as shared (n = 108). All but two of the shared DEGs exhibited the same temporal pattern of expression and the unique genes tended to show greater changes later in the larval period when tiger salamander larvae were undergoing anatomical metamorphosis. A second, complementary analysis that directly compared the expression of 1320 genes between the species identified 409 genes that differed as a function of species or the interaction between time and species. Of these 409 DEGs, 84% exhibited higher abundances in tiger salamander larvae at all sampling times.Many of the unique tiger salamander transcriptional responses are probably associated with metamorphic biological processes. However, the axolotl also showed unique patterns of transcription early in development. In particular, the axolotl showed a genome-wide reduction in mRNA abundance across loci, including genes that regulate hypothalamic-pituitary activities. This suggests that an axolotls failure to undergo anatomical metamorphosis late in the larval period is indirectly associated with a mechanism(s) that acts earlier in development to broadly program transcription. The axolotl hopeful monster provides a model to identify mechanisms of early brain development that proximally and ultimately affect the expression of adult phenotypes.Darwin [1] proposed that evolution by natural selection is a gradual process that results in continuous phenotypic variation among species. However, there are many examples where discontinuous phenotypes are observed among related species and
Effect of thyroid hormone concentration on the transcriptional response underlying induced metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma)
Robert B Page, Stephen R Voss, Amy K Samuels, Jeramiah J Smith, Srikrishna Putta, Christopher K Beachy
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-78
Abstract: Individuals reared in the higher T4 concentration initiated morphological and transcriptional changes earlier and completed metamorphosis by Day 28. In contrast, initiation of metamorphosis was delayed in the lower T4 concentration and none of the individuals completed metamorphosis by Day 28. We identified 402 genes that were statistically differentially expressed by ≥ two-fold between T4 treatments at one or more non-Day 0 sampling times. To complement this analysis, we used linear and quadratic regression to identify 542 and 709 genes that were differentially expressed by ≥ two-fold in the 5 and 50 nM T4 treatments, respectively.We found that T4 concentration affected the timing of gene expression and the shape of temporal gene expression profiles. However, essentially all of the identified genes were similarly affected by 5 and 50 nM T4. We discuss genes and biological processes that appear to be common to salamander and anuran metamorphosis, and also highlight clear transcriptional differences. Our results show that gene expression in axolotls is diverse and precise, and that axolotls provide new insights about amphibian metamorphosis.Amphibian metamorphosis is generally characterized by dramatic and conspicuous developmental changes that are necessary for larvae to function as terrestrial adults. The morphological, behavioral, and physiological changes that occur during metamorphosis are associated with increases in thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxine, T4; TH) [1,2] and RNA synthesis [3]. These events are interconnected; at metamorphosis, tissue-specific concentrations of TH activate and repress transcriptional networks within target cells that in turn regulate new patterns of development [4]. Many genes that are associated with molecular and morphological events during metamorphosis have been identified from studies of anurans, and in particular Xenopus laevis. In contrast, little is known about patterns of gene expression during salamander me
Correlation of microRNA levels during hypoxia with predicted target mRNAs through genome-wide microarray analysis
Jennifer S Guimbellot, Stephen W Erickson, Tapan Mehta, Hui Wen, Grier P Page, Eric J Sorscher, Jeong S Hong
BMC Medical Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-2-15
Abstract: To identify changes induced by hypoxia, we conducted mRNA- and miRNA-array-based experiments in HT29 cells, and performed comparative analysis of the resulting data sets based on multiple target prediction algorithms. To date, few studies have investigated an environmental perturbation for effects on genome-wide miRNA levels, or their consequent influence on mRNA output.Comparison of miRNAs with predicted mRNA targets indicated a lower level of concordance than expected. We did, however, find preliminary evidence of combinatorial regulation of mRNA expression by miRNA.Target prediction programs and expression profiling techniques do not yet adequately represent the complexity of miRNA-mediated gene repression, and new methods may be required to better elucidate these pathways. Our data suggest the physiologic impact of miRNAs on cellular transcription results from a multifaceted network of miRNA and mRNA relationships, working together in an interconnected system and in context of hundreds of RNA species. The methods described here for comparative analysis of cellular miRNA and mRNA will be useful for understanding genome wide regulatory responsiveness and refining miRNA predictive algorithms.MicroRNAs (miRNA) are approximately 22-nucleotide, non-coding RNA sequences important in the control of gene expression. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including development, cell differentiation, signaling, and tumorigenesis[1], and are believed to represent 1% of the predicted genes in mammalian and nematode genomes[2,3]. Mammals in general (and primates in particular) appear to have a large number of miRNAs not found in other animal orders[2], suggesting that many functional miRNAs may have emerged during recent evolutionary periods. According to current functional and predictive models, each miRNA regulates multiple genes during differentiation and/or development at the transcription, translation, and posttranslational levels[1,4,5]. However, few of t
A Comparison of Producer Gas, Biochar, and Activated Carbon from Two Distributed Scale Thermochemical Conversion Systems Used to Process Forest Biomass
Nathaniel Anderson,J. Greg Jones,Deborah Page-Dumroese,Daniel McCollum,Stephen Baker,Daniel Loeffler,Woodam Chung
Energies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/en6010164
Abstract: Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or characterized with regards to chemical properties, possible uses, and markets. This paper characterizes the producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon of a 700 kg h ?1 prototype gasification system and a 225 kg h ?1 pyrolysis system used to process coniferous sawmill and forest residues. Producer gas from sawmill residues processed with the gasifier had higher energy content than gas from forest residues, with averages of 12.4 MJ m ?3 and 9.8 MJ m ?3, respectively. Gases from the pyrolysis system averaged 1.3 MJ m ?3 for mill residues and 2.5 MJ m ?3 for forest residues. Biochars produced have similar particle size distributions and bulk density, but vary in pH and carbon content. Biochars from both systems were successfully activated using steam activation, with resulting BET surface area in the range of commercial activated carbon. Results are discussed in the context of co-locating these systems with forest industry operations.
XMM-Newton Detection of a Comptonized Accretion Disc in the Quasar PKS0558-504
P. T. O'Brien,J. N. Reeves,M. J. L. Turner,K. A. Pounds,M. Page,M. Gliozzi,W. Brinkmann,J. B. Stephen,M. Dadina
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20000215
Abstract: We present XMM-Newton observations of the bright quasar PKS0558-504. The 0.2-10 keV spectrum is dominated by a large, variable soft X-ray excess. The fastest flux variations imply accretion onto a Kerr black hole. The XMM-Newton data suggest the presence of a `big blue bump' in PKS0558-504 extending from the optical band to ~3 keV. The soft X-ray spectrum shows no evidence for significant absorption or emission-line features. The most likely explanation for the hot big blue bump is Comptonization by the multi-temperature corona of a thermal accretion disc running at a high accretion rate.
Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006–7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry
Sharon L Brennan, Tyman Stanford, Anita E Wluka, Margaret J Henry, Richard S Page, Stephen E Graves, Mark A Kotowicz, Geoff C Nicholson, Julie A Pasco
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-13-63
Abstract: Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk.Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006–7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70–79?years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years). Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups.Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.
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