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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 306076 matches for " Stephen J. Arrowsmith "
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A Sources-of-Error Model for Acoustic/Infrasonic Yield Estimation for Above-Ground Single-Point Explosions  [PDF]
Stephen J. Arrowsmith, Rodney W. Whitaker, Jonathan K. Maccarthy, Dale N. Anderson
InfraMatics (InfraMatics) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/inframatics.2012.11001
Abstract: Acoustic/infrasonic measurements contain physical information enabling an estimate of the yield of a single-point explosion that is on or above ground. A variety of semi-empirical and numerical models have been developed for estimating the yield based on the amplitude of a recorded acoustic signal. This paper utilizes existing semi-empirical models-suitable for timely yield estimation—and develops the mathematical framework to properly account for uncertainties in these models, in addition to measurement uncertainties. The inclusion of calibration parameters into our mathematical model allows for the correction of constant path specific effects that are not captured in existing semi-empirical models. The calibrated model provides a yield estimate and associated error bounds that correctly partitions total error into model error and background noise. Yield estimation with the models is demonstrated with single-point, above ground chemical explosions at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) experimental testing facilities.
The colour of electroplated golds
David J. Arrowsmith
Gold Bulletin , 1986, DOI: 10.1007/BF03214651
Abstract: The origin of the colour of gold and gold alloy electrodeposits is discussed, whether any new colours may be expected, and whether theory may be used to predict the colour of new alloys.
Meningococcal Genetic Variation Mechanisms Viewed through Comparative Analysis of Serogroup C Strain FAM18
Stephen D Bentley ,George S Vernikos,Lori A. S Snyder,Carol Churcher,Claire Arrowsmith,Tracey Chillingworth,Ann Cronin,Paul H Davis,Nancy E Holroyd,Kay Jagels,Mark Maddison,Sharon Moule,Ester Rabbinowitsch,Sarah Sharp,Louise Unwin,Sally Whitehead,Michael A Quail,Mark Achtman,Bart Barrell,Nigel J Saunders,Julian Parkhill
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030023
Abstract: The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is commonly found harmlessly colonising the mucosal surfaces of the human nasopharynx. Occasionally strains can invade host tissues causing septicaemia and meningitis, making the bacterium a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. The species is known to be diverse in many ways, as a product of its natural transformability and of a range of recombination and mutation-based systems. Previous work on pathogenic Neisseria has identified several mechanisms for the generation of diversity of surface structures, including phase variation based on slippage-like mechanisms and sequence conversion of expressed genes using information from silent loci. Comparison of the genome sequences of two N. meningitidis strains, serogroup B MC58 and serogroup A Z2491, suggested further mechanisms of variation, including C-terminal exchange in specific genes and enhanced localised recombination and variation related to repeat arrays. We have sequenced the genome of N. meningitidis strain FAM18, a representative of the ST-11/ET-37 complex, providing the first genome sequence for the disease-causing serogroup C meningococci; it has 1,976 predicted genes, of which 60 do not have orthologues in the previously sequenced serogroup A or B strains. Through genome comparison with Z2491 and MC58 we have further characterised specific mechanisms of genetic variation in N. meningitidis, describing specialised loci for generation of cell surface protein variants and measuring the association between noncoding repeat arrays and sequence variation in flanking genes. Here we provide a detailed view of novel genetic diversification mechanisms in N. meningitidis. Our analysis provides evidence for the hypothesis that the noncoding repeat arrays in neisserial genomes (neisserial intergenic mosaic elements) provide a crucial mechanism for the generation of surface antigen variants. Such variation will have an impact on the interaction with the host tissues, and understanding these mechanisms is important to aid our understanding of the intimate and complex relationship between the human nasopharynx and the meningococcus.
The complete genome, comparative and functional analysis of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia reveals an organism heavily shielded by drug resistance determinants
Lisa C Crossman, Virginia C Gould, J Maxwell Dow, Georgios S Vernikos, Aki Okazaki, Mohammed Sebaihia, David Saunders, Claire Arrowsmith, Tim Carver, Nicholas Peters, Ellen Adlem, Arnaud Kerhornou, Angela Lord, Lee Murphy, Katharine Seeger, Robert Squares, Simon Rutter, Michael A Quail, Mari-Adele Rajandream, David Harris, Carol Churcher, Stephen D Bentley, Julian Parkhill, Nicholas R Thomson, Matthew B Avison
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-4-r74
Abstract: The genome of the bacteremia-associated isolate S. maltophilia K279a is 4,851,126 bp and of high G+C content. The sequence reveals an organism with a remarkable capacity for drug and heavy metal resistance. In addition to a number of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial drugs of different classes via alternative mechanisms, nine resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type putative antimicrobial efflux systems are present. Functional genomic analysis confirms a role in drug resistance for several of the novel RND efflux pumps. S. maltophilia possesses potentially mobile regions of DNA and encodes a number of pili and fimbriae likely to be involved in adhesion and biofilm formation that may also contribute to increased antimicrobial drug resistance.The panoply of antimicrobial drug resistance genes and mobile genetic elements found suggests that the organism can act as a reservoir of antimicrobial drug resistance determinants in a clinical environment, which is an issue of considerable concern.The rise of antimicrobial drug resistance in bacteria is one of the biggest threats to healthcare provision in the developed world. Few new antimicrobial drugs are undergoing clinical trials, and almost none are effective against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens [1]. A return to the pre-antibiotic era is a possibility, and for some infections is the current reality [2].Antimicrobial resistance in historically common pathogens is usually either acquired on a mobile genetic element or results from a mutation [3]. However, some opportunistic pathogens are intrinsically resistant to the actions of a number of antimicrobial classes. These tend to be of environmental origin, and their intrinsic drug resistance determinants either provide resistance to antibiotics produced by competitors, or represent broad-spectrum methods for removing toxic compounds or waste products that, by chance, protect against antimicrobials [3,4]. It is known that established opportuni
Local δ18O and δ2H variability in UK rainfall
M. D. Jones,M. J. Leng,C. Arrowsmith,C. Deuchars
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Rainfall collected twice weekly from 3 nearby UK stations between November 2004 and October 2006 allows local differences in δ18O and δ2H to be observed. Local gradients in δ18Op appear to be of the same order of magnitude as national trends, suggesting the spatial δ18Op picture is more complicated than the one currently available from sparse GNIP coverage. Comparing data from this study with previous work we find that average δ18Op has changed in the UK over the last 20 years concurrent with an average temperature increase although inter-annual controls on the values remain seasonal temperature and the amount of precipitation in each rain event. Climate-isotope relationships observed from the weekly data do not explain the observed decadal scale shifts.
Reply to “Critical Comments on the Paper ‘On the Logical Inconsistency of the Special Theory of Relativity’”  [PDF]
Stephen J. Crothers
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2018.66103
Abstract: It has been critically argued by V. A. Leus (Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk, Russia) that in my proof that Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent and therefore false, I violated the basic tenets of Special Relativity and foisted an alternative theory upon Einstein’s. A careful study of the critical analysis reveals however a failure to address the key arguments I adduced to prove Special Relativity logically inconsistent, and a concomitant invocation of Einstein’s theory to try to argue that my analysis is incorrect because it does not concur with Einstein. There is therefore no proof advanced of any alleged error in my analysis. In my paper I did not introduce an alternative theory. The aforementioned critical paper affords opportunity in rebuttal to amplify the invalidity of A. Einstein’s tacit assumption, in constructing the Special Theory of Relativity, that systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers consistent with Lorentz Transformation can be mathematically constructed. Since such systems of observers have in fact no mathematical existence the Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent. It is therefore invalid. The consequences for physics, astronomy, and cosmology, are significant.
Paleoseismology of the Xorxol Segment of the Central Altyn Tagh Fault, Xinjiang, China
Z. Washburn,J. R. Arrowsmith,G. Dupont-Nivet,W. X. Feng
Annals of Geophysics , 2003, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3443
Abstract: Although the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) is thought to play a key role in accommodating India-Eurasian convergence, little is known about its earthquake history. Studies of this strike-slip fault are important for interpretation of the role of faulting versus distributed deformation in the accommodation of the India- Eurasia collision. In addition, the > 1200 km long fault represents one of the most important and exemplary intracontinental strike-slip faults in the world. We mapped fault trace geometry and interpreted paleoseismic trench exposures to characterize the seismogenic behavior of the ATF. We identified 2 geometric segment boundaries in a 270 km long reach of the central ATF. These boundaries define the westernmost Wuzhunxiao, the Central Pingding, and the easternmost Xorxol (also written as Suekuli or Suo erkuli) segments. In this paper, we present the results from the Camel paleoseismic site along the Xorxol Segment at 91.759°E, 38.919°N. There evidence for the last two earthquakes is clear and 14C dates from layers exposed in the excavation bracket their ages. The most recent earthquake occurred between 1456 and 1775 cal A.D. and the penultimate event was between 60 and 980 cal A.D. Combining the Camel interpretations with our published results for the central ATF, we conclude that multiple earthquakes with shorter rupture lengths (?? 50 km) rather than complete rupture of the Xorxol Segment better explain the paleoseismic data. We found 2-3 earthquakes in the last 2-3 kyr. When coupled with typical amounts of slip per event (5-10 m), the recurrence times are tentatively consistent with 1-2 cm/yr slip rates. This result favors models that consider the broader distribution of collisional deformation, rather than those with northward motion of India into Asia absorbed along a few faults bounding rigid blocks.
新生代阿尔金山脉隆升历史的裂变径迹证据
陈正乐,张岳桥,王小凤,陈宣华,Washburn Z.,Arrowsmith J.
地球学报 , 2001,
Abstract: 10个片麻岩和花岗岩的磷灰石裂变径迹年龄值位于35.6-13.6Ma之间,表明了阿尔金山脉的隆升开始于渐新世,并一直延续至中新世。山脉早期的隆升速度较低,后期可能存在一个快速的隆升时期;阿尔金山脉并非整体的均匀隆升,其内分布的NEE走向的断裂也局部控制了山体的隆升;如果山脉的隆升是阿尔金断裂左行走滑的结果,那以可推测阿尔金断裂大型左行走滑的起始时间应为渐新世。区域资料分析表明,青藏高原北缘在渐新世至中新世期间发生了大规模的、区域性的抬升。
A Thermodynamic Model for the Global Economy and Its Implications for Macroeconomic Theory and Policy Formulation  [PDF]
Stephen J. Palmer, Harriet Alford
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.812173
Abstract: Over recent decades the share of income produced by global the economy has increased for capital and decreased for labour. Picketty’s analysis of wealth and income data implies that there is increasing inequality in income share developing in economies including advanced economies. Further investigation by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) confirms that capital’s share of income is increasing versus labour’s share but the data does not fit with Picketty’s r > g growth model, instead indicating that technology is involved. This paper presents a physical model concept for an economy and the global economy that explains how and why capital’s share of income is increasing at the expense of labour and what policymakers need to do to adjust this trend. The macroeconomic policies that correct this trend have also significant concomitant benefits—they address strategic risks such as global warming which are physically linked by the way the economy currently functions through technology. Current policy is driving and increasing income inequality. Physical evidence based macroeconomic policymaking such as that advocated in this paper, can manage these long term risks.
Fission Track Dating of Apatite Constrains on the Cenozoic Uplift of the Altyn Tagh Mountain
新生代阿尔金山脉隆升历史的裂变径迹证据

CHEN Zheng-le,ZHANG Yue-qiao,WANG Xiao-feng,CHEN Xuan-hu,Washburn Z,Arrowsmith J,
陈正乐
,张岳桥,王小凤,陈宣华,Washburn Z.,Arrowsmith J.

地球学报 , 2001,
Abstract: samples of gneiss and granite from the Altyn Tagh Mountain are dated by fission track of apatite. The result yields ages from 35.6 Ma to 13.6 Ma, which suggests that the uplift of the Altyn Tagh mountain began from Oligocene and lasted till Miocene. During the early stage, the uplift rate was very low, and probably a quick uplift occurred later, which is supported by regional geology, structure evolution and sedimentary sequences. The result indicates that the local uplift of the mountain was also controlled by some NEE-trending faults within the mountain. As the uplift of the mountain was probably only related to the strike-slip of the Altyn Tagh fault, the authors hold that the initial age of the left-lateral strike-slip of the fault should have been Oligocene. Regional data also show that a large-scale regional uplift of mountains in the northern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau occurred during Oligocene-Miocene period.
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