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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12089 matches for " Stephen Conaty "
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A large point-source outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium linked to chicken, pork and salad rolls from a Vietnamese bakery in Sydney
Sophie Norton,Essi Huhtinen,Stephen Conaty,Kirsty Hope
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: In January 2011, Sydney South West Public Health Unit was notified of a large number of people presenting with gastroenteritis over two days at a local hospital emergency department (ED).Methods: Case-finding was conducted through hospital EDs and general practitioners, which resulted in the notification of 154 possible cases, from which 83 outbreak cases were identified. Fifty-eight cases were interviewed about demographics, symptom profile and food histories. Stool samples were collected and submitted for analysis. An inspection was conducted at a Vietnamese bakery and food samples were collected and submitted for analysis. Further case ascertainment occurred to ensure control measures were successful.Results: Of the 58 interviewed cases, the symptom profile included diarrhoea (100%), fever (79.3%) and vomiting (89.7%). Salmonella Typhimurium multiple-locus-variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) type 3-10-8-9-523 was identified in 95.9% (47/49) of stool samples. Cases reported consuming chicken, pork or salad rolls from a single Vietnamese bakery. Environmental swabs detected widespread contamination with Salmonella at the premises.Discussion: This was a large point-source outbreak associated with the consumption of Vietnamese-style pork, chicken and salad rolls. These foods have been responsible for significant outbreaks in the past. The typical ingredients of raw egg butter or mayonnaise and pate are often implicated, as are the food-handling practices in food outlets. This indicates the need for education in better food-handling practices, including the benefits of using safer products. Ongoing surveillance will monitor the success of new food regulations introduced in New South Wales during 2011 for improving food-handling practices and reducing foodborne illness.
Measles transmission in health care waiting rooms: implications for public health response
Kirsty Hope,Rowena Boyd,Stephen Conaty,Patrick Maywood
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Seventeen cases of locally acquired measles occurred in South Western Sydney and Sydney local health districts between July and October 2011. Three of the cases were known to have at least one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Seven cases were infected within a health care setting waiting room by five index cases. Current national protocols require follow-up of all susceptible contacts in the same waiting room for any length of time for up to two hours after the index case has left.Methods: Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Information included: demographics, illness and activities during the exposure and infectious periods. Health care settings provided arrival and discharge times, maps of floor layouts and location of patients during stay.Results: All health care setting transmission occurred in cases who were present at the same time as their index cases, with cross-over time ranging from 20 to 254 minutes. No index case was isolated. Index cases were between day four and six of illness when transmission occurred. None of the five index cases and one of seven secondary cases had received at least one dose of MMR vaccine. Of the seven secondary cases, two were one year of age, one was 17 years old and four were between 30 and 39 years old.Conclusion: As Australia moves towards measles elimination, follow-up of cases is important; however, with limited public health resources a targeted response is vital. In this small but well-documented series of secondary cases acquired in a health care setting, all were infected following direct, proximate contact of at least 20 minutes. Changes to the national guidelines may be warranted, ensuring that limited resources are focused on following up contacts at greatest risk of disease.
Resilience: The New Paradigm in Disaster Management—An Australian Perspective  [PDF]
Stephen Jenkins, Stephen Jenkins
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C020
Abstract:

During past decades, frameworks relating to emergency and disaster management have been based on a risk management approach to prevention/mitigation and preparedness coupled with a strong emphasis on response by police and emergency service organisations. Numerous reviews and inquiries of significant events however have identified significant issues relating to the preparation for such events and the management thereof; in particular, critical shortcomings in the capability of emergency response agencies, their leaders and senior decision-makers. In 2008, the Australian Government, through The First National Security Statement to the Australian Parliament by Prime Minister Rudd, has incorporated non-traditional threats and hazards, such as those posed by the impact of climate change, on the national security agenda. In doing so, the Government has announced a paradigm shift in policy for the nation’s approach to emergency and disaster management, namely a move from “response” to “resilience”. In support of this policy shift, the Australian Government, through the Council of Australian Governments, has endorsed the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience and the Critical Infrastructure Resilience Strategy. These documents make resilience the responsibility of all levels of government, private industry, emergency response agencies, and the community. A review of the reports published following Australian reviews and inquiries into significant events has identified that existing frameworks do not provide the necessary mechanisms for baselining and assessing community resilience, that is, their ability to respond to and recover from significant events. Internationally, indices have been developed for assessing community resilience, however, inherent limitations have also been identified in their scope and application. This paper will review Australian and international events which have led to inquiries that have resulted in criticisms of the emergency and disaster response, as well as introducing the organisational capability and resilience of organisations particularly in the context of climate change.

Assessing Bias: The Qualitative in the Quantitative, Darfuri War Fatalities and the Morality of War  [PDF]
Stephen Reyna
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.13013
Abstract: This paper formulates a strategy for assessing bias, and applies it to quantitative assessments of the disaster of war in Darfur [Sudan]. In so doing it argues for qualitative investigations of quantitative analyses. The strategy examines epistemic and political regimes with the goal of revealing the sources, the directions, and the forces of bias. Examples of bias are discussed to illustrate the strategy including, among others, the draw-a-person IQ test, questions about how old you are or whether you can bear children in Chad, and the US army’s Human Terrain System. Considerable attention is paid to US governmental biasing of its claims of war fatalities and genocide in Darfur. This biasing is shown to involve cherry picking, symbolic violence, and high-channel regimes of bias. It is shown how the bias assessment strategy may be of use in evaluating moral claims.
Organs-on-a-Chip: A Future of Rational Drug-Design  [PDF]
Stephen Shay
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59003
Abstract: Many recent advances in biomedical research are related to the combination of biology and microengineering. Microfluidic devices, such as organ-on-a-chip systems, integrate with living cells to allow for the detailed in vitro study of human physiology and pathophysiology. With the poor translation from animal models to human models, the organ-on-a-chip technology has become a promising substitute for animal testing, and their small scale enables precise control of culture conditions and high-throughput experiments, which would not be an economically sound model on a macroscopic level. These devices are becoming more and more common in research centers, clinics, and hospitals, and are contributing to more accurate studies and therapies, making them a staple technology for future drug design.
Compromise in CDMA Network Planning  [PDF]
Stephen Hurley, Leigh Hodge
Communications and Network (CN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2010.23023
Abstract: CDMA network planning, for example in 3G UMTS networks, is an important task whether for upgrading existing networks or planning new networks. It is a time consuming, computationally hard, task and generally requires the consideration of both downlink and uplink requirements. Simulation experiments presented here suggest that if time is a major consideration in the planning process then as a compromise only uplink needs to be considered.
Culture and Organizational Improvisation in UK Financial Services  [PDF]
Stephen A. Leybourne
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24029
Abstract: This paper considers certain aspects of a four-year program of research, and addresses the changing cultural requirements to support the rise of improvisational working practices within the UK financial services sector. Specifically, it reports on some of the outcomes of a study encompassing over 100 hours of interviews, together with a variety of other primary and secondary data. The outcomes of the full study are documented elsewhere, and they identify a number of key factors that contribute to the successful use and control of improvisational working practices. One of these factors is a supportive organizational culture, and this specific area is dealt with in this paper. A particular focus is how the sample of organizations has attempted to identify and create supportive cultural conditions for improvisational work to take place. In order to bring clarity to the outcomes of this study, a matrix of the case study organizations is also offered, which segregates those organizations according to their cultural support for improvisation and apparent improvisation effectiveness. Some comment on the current difficulties in the Financial Services sector has also been included, as it could be argued that improvisation may have contributed to shortcomings in control processes by members of that sector.
Parallel Evaluation of a Spatial Traversability Cost Function on GPU for Efficient Path Planning  [PDF]
Stephen Cossell, Jose Guivant
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2011.34022
Abstract: A parallel version of the traditional grid based cost-to-go function generation algorithm used in robot path planning is introduced. The process takes advantage of the spatial layout of an occupancy grid by concurrently calculating the next wave front of grid cells usually evaluated sequentially in traditional dynamic programming algorithms. The algorithm offers an order of magnitude increase in run time for highly obstacle dense worst-case environments. Efficient path planning of real world agents can greatly increase their accuracy and responsiveness. The process and theoretical analysis are covered before the results of practical testing are discussed.
Quasi-Kernels for Oriented Paths and Cycles  [PDF]
Stephen Bowser, Charles Cable
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2012.22010
Abstract: If D is a digraph, then K∈V(D) is a quasi-kernel of D if D[K]is discrete and for each y∈V(D)-K there is x∈K such that the directed distance from y to x is less than three. We give formulae for the number of quasi-kernels and for the number of minimal quasi-kernels of oriented paths and cycles.
Personality Fit and Positive Interventions: Extraverted and Introverted Individuals Benefit from Different Happiness Increasing Strategies  [PDF]
Stephen M. Schueller
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A172
Abstract:

The current investigation examined if introverts and extraverts benefit differentially from specific positive psychology interventions. Across two studies participants completed various interventions: three good things, gratitude visit, savoring, signature strength, and active-constructive responding. In study 1, each participant (N = 150) completed 1 of the 5 interventions over a one-week period. All 5 interventions led to increases in happiness, t(144) = 3.80, p < .001, and reductions in depressive symptoms t(144) = 5.20, p <.001. Neither exercise was more beneficial overall. The results of an ANCOVA (with baseline levels as a covariate) found that the interaction term for extraversion and condition was at a trend level F(4, 139) = 2.36, p = .056 and planned contrast analyses supported a pattern of person-activity fit. Extraverts benefited more from the gratitude visit and savoring exercises, whereas introverts benefited more from the active-constructive responding, signature strength, and three good things exercises. In study 2, participants (N = 85) were assigned to one of three groups: the gratitude visit performed either in-person, over the phone, or via mail. Participants completed each exercise over a one-week period. No differential efficacy was found for the 3 interventions, F(1,

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