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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 225935 matches for " Stephanie R. Shames "
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Breaking the Stereotype: Virulence Factor–Mediated Protection of Host Cells in Bacterial Pathogenesis
Stephanie R. Shames,B. Brett Finlay
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001057
Abstract:
15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Inhibits Macrophage Colonization by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium
Michelle M. C. Buckner, L. Caetano M Antunes, Navkiran Gill, Shannon L. Russell, Stephanie R. Shames, B. Brett Finlay
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069759
Abstract: 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory downstream product of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. It has been implicated to play a protective role in a variety of inflammatory mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, neural damage, and myocardial infarctions. Here we show that 15d-PGJ2 also plays a role in Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside phagocytic immune cells, allowing for bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. Salmonella species cause a wide range of morbidity and mortality due to gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Previously we have shown that in mouse models of typhoid fever, Salmonella infection causes a major perturbation in the prostaglandin pathway. Specifically, we saw that 15d-PGJ2 production was significantly increased in both liver and feces. In this work we show that 15d-PGJ2 production is also significantly increased in macrophages infected with Salmonella. Furthermore, we show that the addition of 15d-PGJ2 to Salmonella infected RAW264.7, J774, and bone marrow derived macrophages is sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial colonization. We also show evidence that 15d-PGJ2 is reducing bacterial uptake by macrophages. 15d-PGJ2 reduces the inflammatory response of these infected macrophages, as evidenced by a reduction in the production of cytokines and reactive nitrogen species. The inflammatory response of the macrophage is important for full Salmonella virulence, as it can give the bacteria cues for virulence. The reduction in bacterial colonization is independent of the expression of Salmonella virulence genes SPI1 and SPI2, and is independent of the 15d-PGJ2 ligand PPAR-γ. 15d-PGJ2 also causes an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in infected macrophages. In conclusion, we show here that 15d-PGJ2 mediates the outcome of bacterial infection, a previously unidentified role for this prostaglandin.
Effectiveness of Salsa, Sabor y Salud Program and the Impact of a Salsa, Sabor y Salud Maintenance Program on Outcome Measures  [PDF]
Stephanie R. Fox, Virginia A. Bennett
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.36107
Abstract: Chronic diseases in the United States are disproportionately higher in the Hispanic population. A significant factor in the high prevalence of chronic disease in Hispanics may be their overweight or obese status. Intervention strategies are imperative if this trend is to be reversed. Researchers have found that culturally sensitive health programs for the Hispanic population have a higher success rate, but very few of these programs are available. One culturally sensitive health program in particular that has had a lot of positive feedback is the Salsa, Sabor y Salud (SSS) program. Although research has shown that SSS is a successful program, SSS has not had a maintenance program to date. Health maintenance programs are essential for people to retain information and to continue the practice of skills needed to live healthy lifestyles. Research has shown that health program participants will revert to their old behaviors within five years time. Recent studies suggest that these reversions can be avoided with a health maintenance program. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the SSS program and the impact of a Salsa, Sabor y Salud Maintenance (SSSM) program on outcome measures. In both the SSS and SSSM program the participants increased nutrient dense food consumption and chose lower fat options for food. The participants in both programs had a significant increase in overall knowledge of nutritious eating habits and the benefits of physical activity as well. With the addition of the SSSM program participants reported an increase in fruit and vegetable intake, and food label reading when shopping, which was not seen in the SSS program alone. This study further confirms the SSS program improves healthy lifestyle choices based on measured outcomes, but it also provides evidence that the SSSM program significantly enhances positive health outcomes.
sIR: siRNA Information Resource, a web-based tool for siRNA sequence design and analysis and an open access siRNA database
Jyoti K Shah, Harold R Garner, Michael A White, David S Shames, John D Minna
BMC Bioinformatics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-178
Abstract: The siRNA design tool described in this paper employs empirically determined rules derived from a meta-analysis of the published data; it uses a weighted scoring system that determines the optimal sequence within a target mRNA and thus aids in the rational selection of siRNA sequences. This scoring system shows a non-linear correlation with the knockdown efficiency of siRNAs. sIR provides a fast, customized BLAST output for all selected siRNA sequences against a variety of databases so that the user can verify the uniqueness of the design. We have pre-designed siRNAs for all the known human genes (24,502) in the Refseq database. These siRNAs were pre-BLASTed against the human Unigene database to estimate the target specificity and all results are available online.Although most of the rules for this scoring system were influenced by previously published rules, the weighted scoring system provides better flexibility in designing an appropriate siRNA when compared to the un-weighted scoring system. sIR is not only a comprehensive tool used to design siRNA sequences and lookup pre-designed siRNAs, but it is also a platform where researchers can share information on siRNA design and use.Nobel laureates, Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered that the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the nematode C. elegans initiated a potent sequence-specific response which caused a robust interference with the gene expression of the gene containing the same sequence as the dsRNA. [1]. RNAi is mediated through dsRNA, in a process similar to post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants and quelling in fungi. PTGS is a gene regulatory process, where reduction in the steady-state levels of a specific mRNA occurs through sequence-specific degradation of the transcribed mRNA [2]. It is thought that this process evolved as a defense mechanism against RNA viruses. In organisms capable of RNAi, upon entry into the cytoplasm, long dsRNA is cleaved by an RNase III-like enzyme
And How Does that Make You Feel?
Stephanie R. Wiesenthal
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v78i2.1033
Abstract:
Self-Colonizing eEurope: The Information Society Merges onto the Information Superhighway
Stephanie R Schulte
Journal of Transnational American Studies , 2009,
Abstract: This comparative article investigates the different views of the internet—what it could do and what it was for—as they emerged in news media, popular culture, and policy in the United State and Europe before the year 2000. In the United States, the internet was imagined as an inevitability, as the domain of private corporations, and as a new frontier that would usher the United States into an era of global economic dominance. In Europe, the internet was imagined as a technological choice, as a technology subordinate to national institutions, and as a public utility that the state should provide citizens through national telecommunications corporations. Despite these differences, this article shows how, as the century concluded, the political imaginings of the internet in the two locations converged. While EU policymakers increasingly envisioned the internet as a free market and a means for global economic power, U.S. policymakers envisaged it more and more as a requirement for competent democratic citizenship. Europe "Americanized" its internet policies by increasing competition through cuts in state support for national telecommunications corporations, and the United States "Europeanized" theirs by promoting policies designed to bridge the "digital divide." Ultimately, this article shows how the internet served both as an agent of change and a discursive construction through which varying imaginings were contested. In particular, Europe's adoption of the eEurope 2005 project—an endorsement of American-style unsubsidized corporations instead of European-style statist traditions—suggests that the internet functioned as a transatlantic cultural carrier of advanced capitalism.
Low Volume, Funding, Staffing and Technical Problems are Key Reasons for Discontinuation of Chat Reference Services. A review of: Radford, Marie L., and M. Kathleen Kern. “A Multiple‐case Study Investigation of the Discontinuation of Nine Chat Reference Services.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006): 521‐47.
Stephanie R. Walker
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Objective – To investigate the reasons behind the cessation of 9 virtual (chat) reference services. Design – Multiple case‐study investigation Setting – Academic, public, and special libraries in the United States. Subjects – Five academic libraries, 1 public library, and 3 library consortia. Methods – The initial method used to identify discontinued chat reference services was via a posting to DIG_REF, the digitalreference services listserv. From this initial posting, librarians on the list also suggested other cases, for a total of 7. Two cases later came to the authors’ attention and were added. The 9 cases included academic libraries, a public library, and consortia who used tools provided by four major software vendors, giving a good cross‐section of the types of libraries participating in VR and the major software packages available at the time. A contact person for each discontinued service was invited to participate. The participants were geographically scattered, so data were collected via e‐mail questionnaires, telephone interviews, and examination of available documents describing the services, audiences, demographics, operations, and any decision‐making processes either for starting or discontinuing the service. The authors then compared and contrasted results obtained from the 9 services. The authors analysed reasons for discontinuation of services, the decision making processes, volume of questions, service hours, marketing, evaluation, and whether the service might be restarted atsome time in the future. Main Results – Although the VR services discussed were being delivered by diverse organizations, some commonalities emerged. All 9 services used existing staff and added chat reference to their duties. In all but one case, the hours of service offered when VRbegan were within the hours that the libraries were already open to the public. In the exception (Case E), there were hours of service after the libraries were closed, from 7‐10 p.m. These shifts were covered by librarians working from home. Decisions to either begin or suspend services were generally made by small informal groups or committees. Some cases began with pilot studies and received positive responses. Other than these pilot studies, little pre‐planning appeared to have been done. For example, there were noextensive advance surveys or studies to determine potential demand or markets for the service, or projected costs and benefits. Only one service had a strong, multi‐stage evaluation plan. In future launches of virtual reference services, both extensive pre‐planning and det
Active influence in dynamical models of structural balance in social networks
Tyler H. Summers,Iman Shames
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/103/18001
Abstract: We consider a nonlinear dynamical system on a signed graph, which can be interpreted as a mathematical model of social networks in which the links can have both positive and negative connotations. In accordance with a concept from social psychology called structural balance, the negative links play a key role in both the structure and dynamics of the network. Recent research has shown that in a nonlinear dynamical system modeling the time evolution of "friendliness levels" in the network, two opposing factions emerge from almost any initial condition. Here we study active external influence in this dynamical model and show that any agent in the network can achieve any desired structurally balanced state from any initial condition by perturbing its own local friendliness levels. Based on this result, we also introduce a new network centrality measure for signed networks. The results are illustrated in an international relations network using United Nations voting record data from 1946 to 2008 to estimate friendliness levels amongst various countries.
Options for Evaluating Treatment Benefit in MCI and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease: Content Validity of the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ) in Patients with Early Symptoms of Cognitive Decline  [PDF]
William R. Lenderking, Anna Steenrod, Katja Rüdell, Stephanie Klapper, Kellee Howard, Maren Gaudig
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2014.31001
Abstract: Background: Many instruments used to assess outcomes of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have no published evidence of their relevance and content validity in earlier stages of the disease, i.e., mild cognitive impairment, or prodromal AD (pAD). The objective of this project was to evaluate the applicability and usefulness of the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ) as an outcome measure in this population using qualitative methodology to support content validity. Method: Two waves of qualitative interviews were conducted in patients with MCI and pAD. Results: Evidence for content validity and usefulness of the instrument was demonstrated in the patient interviews. Minor modifications to the wording of several items were suggested for the PDQ and the recall period was changed. Conclusion: With these modifications, the PDQ has improved content validity and relevance. It is therefore a potentially useful outcome measure to evaluate therapeutic benefit in interventional studies of patients in the early stages of AD.
The twisted path from farm subsidies to health care expenditures  [PDF]
Stephanie Bernell
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A216
Abstract:

Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for many diseases and health conditions, including but not limited to the following: hypertension; osteoarthritis; dyslipidemia; type 2 diabetes; coronary heart disease and stroke. Consequently, individuals who are obese are more likely to use health services and are more likely to use costly health services than non-obese individuals. Between 1987 and 2001, growth in obesity related health expenditures accounted for 27 percent of the growth in inflation-adjusted per capita health care spending. Researchers, popular press and the television news media have paid considerable attention to the effect that farm subsidies have on dietary habits and obesity. Prominent researchers in the field have concluded that US farm subsidies have had a negligible impact on obesity. However, even small increases in obesity rates are associated with higher health care expenditures. The primary intent of this study is to break down the linkages from farm subsidy to health expenditure and shed light on the unintended implications of the farm subsidy program. We find that agricultural subsidies have the potential to influence health care expenditures.

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