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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403183 matches for " Stephanie M. Curenton "
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Instructional Conversations in Early Childhood Classrooms: Policy Suggestions for Curriculum Standards and Professional Development  [PDF]
Stephanie M. Curenton, Tricia Zucker
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A1009

The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for two early education policy levers proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that can be specifically applied to oral language instructional in the classroom: Policy Lever 2—Designing and implementing curriculum and standards; and Policy Lever 3—Improving qualifications, training and working conditions. First, I describe the efforts the United States has made in terms of oral language instruction, and second I describe a professional development model (the Conversation Compassa?) that trains teachers to use instructional conversations with children age 2-6.

Comparison of Shared Reading versus Emergent Reading: How the Two Provide Distinct Opportunities for Early Literacy
Stephanie M. Curenton,Symonne Kennedy
ISRN Education , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/936191
Abstract: This study examined mother-child interactions across two types of reading interactions—shared reading versus emergent reading—in order to determine (a) if mothers and children provide the same amount of language input across the two interactions, (b) if the socioemotional quality is consistent across the interactions, and (c) if the language input and socioemotional quality across the two interactions are differentially associated with children’s scores on early literacy assessments. Twenty-five mother-child dyads participated in both interactions. Children were given a standardized test of early reading and an emergent reading score based on a rubric designed particularly for the book they were reading. Results indicated that during the shared reading mothers provided more language input (i.e., they talked more), but children increased their amount of talk during the emergent reading, making such input effects null. Overall, socioemotional quality was consistent across the two interactions, except mothers provide more literacy feedback during shared reading. Both language input and socioemotional quality were associated with higher scores on early literacy assessments, but the contribution of these factors varied depending across the type of reading interaction. Results are discussed in terms of education implications for literacy practices at home and school. 1. Introduction Before young children can actually read, they possess a body of knowledge pertaining to reading and writing that teachers, developmental psychologists, and researchers refer to as early literacy skills. These skills include meaning-based and code-based skills related to vocabulary, morphosyntax, listening comprehension, print awareness, and phonological awareness (for a detailed discussion of skills see [1]). Early literacy skills are developed through repeated exposure to language and literacy activities at school and home, and two of the activities we explore in this study are typical shared reading and emergent reading. In this study, typical shared reading between a parent and child is characterized by a one-on-one interaction in which an adult reads a story to the child and encourages the child to be actively involved by asking questions and allowing him/her to share their ideas and opinions about the story. In comparison, we define emergent reading as a one-on-one interaction between a parent and child in which a child uses the pictures of book, along with what they remember about that book, to retell the story perhaps with guidance from the parent in the form of questions
Pathogenesis of Noroviruses, Emerging RNA Viruses
Stephanie M. Karst
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2030748
Abstract: Human noroviruses in the family Caliciviridae are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. They are responsible for at least 95% of viral outbreaks and over 50% of all outbreaks worldwide. Transmission of these highly infectious plus-stranded RNA viruses occurs primarily through contaminated food or water, but also through person-to-person contact and exposure to fomites. Norovirus infections are typically acute and self-limited. However, disease can be much more severe and prolonged in infants, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur in semi-closed communities such as nursing homes, military settings, schools, hospitals, cruise ships, and disaster relief situations. Noroviruses are classified as Category B biodefense agents because they are highly contagious, extremely stable in the environment, resistant to common disinfectants, and associated with debilitating illness. The number of reported norovirus outbreaks has risen sharply since 2002 suggesting the emergence of more infectious strains. There has also been increased recognition that noroviruses are important causes of childhood hospitalization. Moreover, noroviruses have recently been associated with multiple clinical outcomes other than gastroenteritis. It is unclear whether these new observations are due to improved norovirus diagnostics or to the emergence of more virulent norovirus strains. Regardless, it is clear that human noroviruses cause considerable morbidity worldwide, have significant economic impact, and are clinically important emerging pathogens. Despite the impact of human norovirus-induced disease and the potential for emergence of highly virulent strains, the pathogenic features of infection are not well understood due to the lack of a cell culture system and previous lack of animal models. This review summarizes the current understanding of norovirus pathogenesis from the histological to the molecular level, including contributions from new model systems.
Neural tissue engineering using embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells
Stephanie M Willerth
Stem Cell Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/scrt58
Abstract: The human nervous system can be divided into two major components: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system [1]. The CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord with the blood-brain barrier restricting the types of biomolecules that can reach these organs [2]. The majority of neural tissue found in the CNS consists of two cell types: neuronal cells and glial cells. Neurons serve as the main information transmitting unit of the nervous system, which can be classified as either sensory, allowing them to detect stimuli from the environment, or motor, responsible for the generation of movement through signaling with muscle tissue [3]. Glial cells encompass a number of different types of support cells, including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes found in the CNS [4,5]. This review will discuss the use of embryonic stem (ES) cell therapy as a method of treating injuries and diseases that inflict damage to the CNS. These studies are particularly relevant now as the first human ES-cell-derived therapy is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as a potential method for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) [6].ES cells possess two hallmark characteristics: the ability to self-renew and pluripotency [7]. The pluripotent nature of ES cells allows them to generate the cells found in neural tissue, including neurons and glia. As a result, ES-cell-based regeneration strategies have been investigated for a number of diseases as well as for repairing mechanically damaged nerve tissue. While many other types of stem cells have been evaluated for their potential to promote neural repair, this review will focus specifically on the attempts made with ES cells as this work will be most applicable to developing therapies using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. First generated in 2006, iPS cells are produced from adult somatic cells, such as skin cells, by inducing specific factors that restore pluripotency [8-10] (Figure 1). The recent generation of these
Stephanie M Luiz
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: A scheme of arrangement involving a regulated company and its shareholders is defined as an "affected transaction" in the Companies Act 71 of 2008. Although scheme of arrangements, which can be used to achieve a takeover of a company, are a common occurrence, the Act provides no definition of such schemes. The importance of knowing what actually constitutes a scheme of arrangement becomes apparent when it is noted that section 121 of the Actprovides that any person making an offer which if accepted would result in an affected transaction is obliged to comply with all the relevant reporting and approval requirements in the Act, as well as the Takeover Regulations, unless the Takeover Regulation Panel has granted an exemption. Giving effect to an affected transaction is prohibited, unless the Panel has issued a compliance certificate or granted an exemption. The article comments generally on the definition of a scheme of arrangement as an affected transaction, highlighting the elements of a scheme of arrangement. Specific consideration is given to transactions which include a re-acquisition by the company of its own previously issued securities and when such a re-acquisition on its own would be considered to be a scheme of arrangement and an affected transaction. Comment on the obligation to appoint an independent expert to report on the scheme and the relevance, if any, of the solvency and liquidity of the company embarking on a scheme of arrangement is included. Finally, consideration is given to the need to have a scheme of arrangement approved by a special resolution and the potential exclusion of certain voting rights. The article exposes a number of difficulties with the interpretation of the applicable provisions and suggests that these need to be revisited by the legislature for clarification.
Social Studies Textbooks for Pre-Service Elementary Teachers: Implications for Literacy and ELL Instruction
Stephanie M. BENNETT
Journal of Social Studies Education Research , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine elementary social studies methods texts, specifically focusing on literacy content (reading comprehension strategies, vocabulary strategies, and literacy activities) for the general education population and English Language Learners (ELLs). Eight elementary social studies methods texts were examined. Analysis of the texts found that while a limited number of reading comprehension and vocabulary strategies and activities were found in each text, half of the texts did not detail how to use the strategies in the classroom or how to differentiate instruction for ELL’s. Thus, collaboration between social studies educators, literacy educators and ESOL educators is needed in order to fully prepare our pre-service teachers to teach across content areas.
Comparative Analysis of Disparity in Demand for Fresh Fish between Rural and Urban Households in Cameroon  [PDF]
E. Stephanie M. Mvodo, Ngite Prudence Mbulle, Ndive Epeti Likowo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.99079
Abstract: The past decades have exhibited changes in the consumption of fresh fish. In developing countries, factors affecting fish consumption are different between urban and rural households. This study comparatively analyses the disparity in demand for fresh fish between rural and urban households in Cameroon. Using random sampling, data on the weekly consumption of fresh fish were collected between April and May 2015; 30 households lived in rural localities while 30 lived in urban areas of Buea Municipality. Consumer’s income, the price of fresh fish, family size, gender and age of consumers represented parameters of interest. These were analyzed using the independent sample t-test. Results revealed that the availability, the income level and price affected fish consumption of rural dwellers while price, taste, income and affordability determined the consumption patterns of urban dwellers. The study equally revealed that the higher the price of fresh fish, the higher the demand for its closed substitutes and the higher the size of the household, the higher the quantity demanded. Gender, education and marital status did not affect the quantity demanded; family size and age negatively influenced consumers’ decision to buy while consumers’ income and price of fresh fish positively influenced consumers’ weekly and monthly expenditure on fresh fish. The study proposes that more information be provided to consumers regarding the numerous nutritional benefits of fresh fish for both rural and urban dwellers. Also, policy makers and marketers need to improve the availability of fresh fish in rural and semi-urban settings.
The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation, Disease, and Sudden Death
Robert M. Davidson,Stephanie Seneff
Entropy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/e14081399
Abstract: In reviewing the literature pertaining to interfacial water, colloidal stability, and cell membrane function, we are led to propose that a cascade of events that begins with acute exogenous surfactant-induced interfacial water stress can explain the etiology of sudden death syndrome (SDS), as well as many other diseases associated with modern times. A systemic lowering of serum zeta potential mediated by exogenous cationic surfactant administration is the common underlying pathophysiology. The cascade leads to subsequent inflammation, serum sickness, thrombohemorrhagic phenomena, colloidal instability, and ultimately even death. We propose that a sufficient precondition for sudden death is lowered bioavailability of certain endogenous sterol sulfates, sulfated glycolipids, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which are essential in maintaining biological equipose, energy metabolism, membrane function, and thermodynamic stability in living organisms. Our literature review provides the basis for the presentation of a novel hypothesis as to the origin of endogenous bio-sulfates which involves energy transduction from sunlight. Our hypothesis is amply supported by a growing body of data showing that parenteral administration of substances that lower serum zeta potential results in kosmotropic cationic and/or chaotropic anionic interfacial water stress, and the resulting cascade.
Debunking myths of protocol registration
Stephanie M Chang, Jean Slutsky
Systematic Reviews , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2046-4053-1-4
Abstract: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) Program has long been committed to posting systematic reviews and protocols publicly [1]. Developing and posting a protocol benefits the systematic review community and their stakeholders, as well as the individual review team. The protocol defines the scope of the systematic review as well as the methods that will be used to conduct the review, thus providing not only transparency of the review but the ability for the systematic review community to track what reviews are taking place and their scope.Increasingly, systematic reviews are the expected foundation for health technology assessments, clinical practice guidelines, coverage decisions and quality measures. The May 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on 'Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust' [2] highlights the increasing recognition of the role of systematic reviews for making evidence-based decisions. With this increasing demand for systematic reviews in decision making, it becomes even more important to increase transparency, reduce redundancy and leverage resources in conducting reviews.Before embarking on a systematic review, researchers and funders scan the field to see if other reviews have been completed or are in progress and if there is a need for a new review [3,4]. Unfortunately, because many individual groups do not post their intentions of conducting a systematic review or the review protocol, the EPC Program has started a review only to have one on the same topic and scope be published shortly after.In order to be useful, protocol registration needs to reach a tipping point where it becomes the norm. However, outside of those required by funders or journal editors, most reviews are not registered because of perceived burdens or barriers or a lack of a centralized registration process. We provide some arguments to the contrary below.There is no easy way to make my systematic review protocol availab
Contributions of Metacognitive and Self-Regulated Learning Theories to Investigations of Calibration of Comprehension
Stephanie STOLP,Karen M. ZABRUCKY
International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper we examine the contributions of metacognitive and self-regulated learning theories to research on students' calibration of comprehension. Historically, cognitive psychologists have studied calibration of comprehension within a purely metacognitive framework, with an emphasis on the role of text and task factors but little consideration of factors of self. There has been a recent trend, however, towards incorporating a social cognitive perspective to the study of calibration of comprehension, with factors of self such as motivation and affect being examined more often. Among the factors of self that have been examined, self-efficacy has played a major role as it may be all but impossible to disentangle its influence on students' calibration of comprehension. Other variables of self that have been examined include ability, familiarity, ego and goal-orientation, goal setting, personality traits and susceptibility to social and cultural influences. Broadening the context in which calibration of comprehension is assessed allows a more complete examination of the rich set of interrelated processes that affect students' performance.
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