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The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches
Thomas D Szucs, Karin Berger, David N Fisman, Stephan Harbarth
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-1-5
Abstract: The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars.In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs.GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most frequent causative organism of genital herpes (GH) in the United States, while HSV type 1 is felt responsible for this recurrent infection in only 20 to 30 percent of cases [1]. GH is contagious both in the symptomatic and in the asymptomatic phase of the disease and causes painful genital ulcers. The management of the patient involves consultations, laboratory exams and drug treatment for the disease and its complications.GH is one of the three most widespread sexually transmitted diseases in the USA [2]. Published data show that 45 million
Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011
Marco Ezechieli,Stephan Berger,Christian-Heige Siebert,Oliver Miltner
Orthopedic Reviews , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/or.2012.e28
Abstract: American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE). The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE) than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01)]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE) compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE). Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.
Photon Structure Function Revisited  [PDF]
Christoph Berger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.68107
Abstract: The flux of papers from electron positron colliders containing data on the photon structure function \"\"ended naturally around 2005. It is thus timely to review the theoretical basis and confront the predictions with a summary of the experimental results. The discussion will focus on the increase of the structure function with x (for x away from the boundaries) and its rise with \"\", both characteristics being dramatically different from hadronic structure functions. The agreement of the experimental observations with the theoretical calculations is a striking success of QCD. It also allows a new determination of the QCD coupling constant \"\"which very well corresponds to the values quoted in the literature.
Aging in America: Ageism and General Attitudes toward Growing Old and the Elderly  [PDF]
Raqota Berger
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.58015
Abstract: Ageism is the one form of social prejudice that people from all social back-grounds have to deal with. We live in a world where youth is valued over old age and where old people are often mistreated and negatively stereotyped. Major social institutions are largely behind these negative attitudes toward the elderly, particularly the mass media. The current study examined people’s attitudes and feelings about the elderly and about growing old. Survey data were collected on 154 respondents living in Southern California. Respondents provided information on their feelings and attitudes about the elderly and about how society views and treats the elderly. Respondents also provided information about their feelings, attitudes, and fears about growing old themselves. The data revealed that there is a general sense of ambivalence about the elderly and about growing old. Although the findings were mixed, young people appear to have more negative feelings in general and there appears to be a greater concern among women about growing old. Native Americans and Middle Eastern respondents had the most favorable views about the elderly. The findings of the study support the position that ageism is still a social problem and that most people have somewhat mixed feelings about the elderly and about growing old. Future research should look further at how the mass media and larger cultural stereotypes and attitudes affect the lives, functioning, and treatment of our eldest members of society.
Criminal Behavior among the Elderly: A Look into What People Think about This Emerging Topic  [PDF]
Raqota Berger
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2018.71001
The elderly population is growing fast. With this changing demographic fact we can expect to see overall crime rates among the elderly growing right along with it. This study explored people’s knowledge about elderly crime and their perceptions about elderly offenders. Survey data were collected from 229 respondents living in Southern California. Statistical analyses on the key variables revealed a number of significant group differences in regard to age F(7, 221) = 2.15, p = 0.039, and ethnicity F(5, 223) = 2.60, p = 0.026. The data revealed that most of the respondents believe that elderly crime is going to get worse over time (58.5%) and that white-collar crimes were the biggest problem (44.5%). Male respondents (M = 1.80, SD = 3.83) on average knew more elderly offenders than female respondents (M = 0.99, SD = 2.39). Respondents from all ages tended to believe that older people were less likely to commit street crimes but were about as likely to commit white-collar crimes as younger people. There also appears to be a pattern of increasing drug use and drug abuse among both elderly men and women. Increasing problems with criminal offending among the elderly are going to have major implications across different social systems and institutions, such as political, economic, and legal systems, corrections, rehabilitation, and medical and mental health services.
Crime in Greater Los Angeles: Experiences and Perceptions of Local Urban Residents  [PDF]
Raqota Berger
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.62015
The area making up greater Los Angeles is the most populated region in the United States. With over 10 million residents in this largely urban county, we can only expect there to be some ongoing problems with crime and victimization. The current study collected self-reported data from local resident in regard to their personal experiences with crime and victimization. Relevant demographic information was collected to help with our understanding of which types of social groups may be more prone to being targeted for certain types of criminal acts. Information was also gathered to help better understand how Los Angeles area residents felt about crime in the region and how they felt about their own personal safety. Women were found to be more likely to know the perpetrators of crimes against them than the men. Middle Eastern and Black residents generally felt the most unsafe, while Asian residents felt the safest overall. Most of the respondents stated that they have been the target of one or more criminal acts since they have lived in the Los Angeles area, with the most common single type of crime being robbery. Additional findings add further to our knowledge about this important social problem spanning across this major urban territory.
Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated Dirac electrons in graphene
Martin Mittendorff,Torben Winzer,Ermin Malic,Andreas Knorr,Claire Berger,Walter A. de Heer,Harald Schneider,Manfred Helm,Stephan Winnerl
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1021/nl404730y
Abstract: We investigate the polarization dependence of the carrier excitation and relaxation in epitaxial multilayer graphene. Degenerate pump-probe experiments with a temporal resolution of 30 fs are performed for different rotation angles of the pump-pulse polarization with respect to the polarization of the probe pulse. A pronounced dependence of the pump-induced transmission on this angle is found. It reflects a strong anisotropy of the pump-induced occupation of photogenerated carriers in momentum space even though the band structure is isotropic. Within 150 fs after excitation an isotropic carrier distribution is established. Our observations imply the predominant role of collinear scattering preserving the initially optically generated anisotropy in the carrier distribution. The experiments are well described by microscopic time-, momentum, and angle-resolved modelling, which allows us to unambiguously identify non-collinear carrier-phonon scattering to be the main relaxation mechanism giving rise to an isotropic distribution in the first hundred fs after optical excitation.
Carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene close to the Dirac point
Stephan Winnerl,Milan Orlita,Paulina Plochocka,Piotr Kossacki,Marek Potemski,Torben Winzer,Ermin Malic,Andreas Knorr,Michael Sprinkle,Claire Berger,Walter A. de Heer,Harald Schneider,Manfred Helm
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.237401
Abstract: We study the carrier dynamics in epitaxially grown graphene in the range of photon energies from 10 - 250 meV. The experiments complemented by microscopic modeling reveal that the carrier relaxation is significantly slowed down as the photon energy is tuned to values below the optical phonon frequency, however, owing to the presence of hot carriers, optical phonon emission is still the predominant relaxation process. For photon energies about twice the value of the Fermi energy, a transition from pump-induced transmission to pump-induced absorption occurs due to the interplay of interband and intraband processes.
Association between Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Result of Medial Branch Blocks  [PDF]
Stephan Klessinger, Wolfgang Freund
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2017.51001
Abstract: The aim of this retrospective practice audit was to assess the correlation between painful zygapophysial joints and changes seen in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with unilateral pain were tested with controlled medial branch blocks. The MRI scans of patients with a positive response were compared blinded with normal MRI scans. The dimensions of the joint were assessed and osteoarthritis was graded. Fifteen symptomatic patients and 15 asymptomatic patients were included and evaluated. Comparison of the joints showed that the maximum diameter of symptomatic joints was significantly larger, and the grading of osteoarthritis was significantly higher for symptomatic joints. No healthy patient was assigned a grade 3. Grades 2 and 3 were found significantly more often in symptomatic patients. Only one symptomatic joint was assigned grade 0. Grade 0 was found significantly more often in asympto-matic patients. The presented MRI technique has limited value as a diagnostic test for lumbar zygapophysial joint pain. It is not possible to detect a single symptomatic joint. However, the osteoarthritis grading for the lumbar zyg-apophysial joints might be helpful for finding predictors for negative response if the results of the rating are grade zero. Therefore, unnecessary medial branch blocks might be avoided.
Chesapeake Bay Tidal Characteristics  [PDF]
Yi Xiong, Charlie R. Berger
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.27071
Abstract: The basic knowledge of tidal characteristics in Chesapeake Bay is a prerequisite to understand the tidal processes in Chesapeake Bay. The tidal characteristics in Chesapeake Bay were assessed in this paper using basic tidal hydraulic analysis. Tidal elevation, currents and salinity data of Chesapeake Bay from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) were retrieved, and analyzed to understand Chesapeake Bay tide. General knowledge of location, geometry, tides, freshwater inputs, wind, salinity, etc in Chesapeake Bay was described. Sediment distribution of Chesapeake Bay was briefly described and discussed. Amplitude and phase of the selected major constituent, form factor, phase difference between tide elevations and currents at a few tidal elevation stations within Chesapeake Bay were calculated. Tidal prism was figured out using cubature method. The analysis approach could also be used as a source of reference for basic tidal study in other tide-affected field.
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