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A CASE STUDY OF A CHINESE ‘HIKIKOMORIAN’ IN CANADA – THEORIZING THE PROCESS OF HIKIKOMORIZATION
Stella Suk-ching CHONG,Kar-Mon CHAN
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: The term ‘hikikomori’ originates from Japan and means ‘acute social withdrawal’. This study intends to investigate into the causes of hikikomori which is increasing worldwide phenomenon. The methodology is a case study approach located in an interpretive paradigm. The data was mainly collected through e-mails with the participant and phone conversations with his mother. The participant was a ‘hiki-ko-morian’ who was invited to investigate his own problem and further to be the co-author of this paper. The literature findings and this case study were then conceptualized into a more wide-ranging framework in compre-hen-ding the process of hikikomorization. The result appears to show that hikikomorization involves three processes: first, a predisposed introverted personality; second, the effects of multiple environmental factors such as family, school and society; and finally, the trigger point, such as the end of schooling or a stressful event. The study offers implications for other hiki-ko-mo-rians in better understanding of their problems and for practitioners working with reclusive ado-lescents and their families.
Determination of Optimal Manufacturing Parameters for Injection Mold by Inverse Model Basing on MANFIS  [PDF]
Chung-Neng Huang, Chong-Ching Chang
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2010.21004
Abstract: Since plastic products are with the features as light, anticorrosive and low cost etc., that are generally used in several of tools or components. Consequently, the requirements on the quality and effectiveness in production are increasingly serious. However, there are many factors affecting the yield rate of injection products such as material characteristic, mold design, and manufacturing parameters etc. involved with injection machine and the whole manufacturing process. Traditionally, these factors can only be designed and adjusted by many times of trial-and-error tests. It is not only waste of time and resource, but also lack of methodology for referring. Although there are some methods as Taguchi method or neural network etc. proposed for serving and optimizing this problem, they are still insufficient for the needs. For the reasons, a method for determining the optimal parameters by the inverse model of manufacturing platform is proposed in this paper. Through the integration of inverse model basing on MANFIS and Taguchi method, inversely, the optimal manufacturing parameters can be found by using the product requirements. The effectiveness and feasibility of this proposal is confirmed through numerical studies on a real case example.
Dosimetric Analysis of Prone Breast Treatment in Tomotherapy and Conventional Linear Accelerator  [PDF]
Ching Chong Jack Yang, Zhihui Hu, Yie Chen, Jie Qiu
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2013.24021
Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate planning quality and dosimetric differences of clinically deliverable 3D conformal plans generated from Tomotherapy with TomoDirectTM (TD) and conventional field-in-field approach in prone breast treatment. Materials and methods: Total of twelve randomly selected early stage left breast patients who went through lumpectomy and were previously treated on traditional Linear Accelerator (LINAC) have been re-planned and tested on Tomotherapy TomoDirect module. Baseline prescription dose was chosen at 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy × 28 fractions) to cover ≥95% of PTV for planning criteria with other critical structure dose constraints in the thoracic region. Planning outcomes such as D95 (95% of volume of PTV receiving the prescribed dose), D5 and D1, heart, both lungs as well as the contralateral breast were simultaneously evaluated. Conformity of the prescription isodose/volume to PTV was evaluated as conformity index (CI) and dose uniformity was also evaluated with homogeneity index (HI) in the same study series. All outcome parameters were analyzed and summarized to evaluate dosimetric impact of planning qualities between these two planning platforms. Results: The planning results indicate that CI, HI, D95, D5 and D1 of PTV, critical structures such as heart, ipsilateral and contralateral lungs as well as contralateral breast doses were comparable but with better overall statistical end points from TD plans. The D95, D5

A note on -ideals in certain algebras of operators
Chong-Man Cho,Woo Suk Roh
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171200002246
Abstract: Let X=(∑n=1∞ℓ1n)p,   p>1. In this paper, we investigate M-ideals which are also ideals in L(X), the algebra of all bounded linear operators on X. We show that K(X), the ideal of compact operators on X is the only proper closed ideal in L(X) which is both an ideal and an M-ideal in L(X).
Hamartomatous Polyp of Minor Salivary Gland Arising in the Tongue: A Report of the First Case  [PDF]
Yosep Chong, Young Hak Park, Tae-Jung Kim, Chang Suk Kang
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2014.43013
Abstract:

Benign tumorous condition can be encountered at very unusual location in oral cavity and pharyngeal region, which leads diagnostic difficulty. Here we describe a very unusual presentation of polypoid hamartoma on the root of the tongue. A 59-year-old woman presented with a polypoid tumor mass on the dorsal root of the tongue. Microscopically, it was hamartoma showing normal salivary glands of mucinous and serous types, lymphoid hyperplasia, and skeletal muscle bundles. Major differential diagnoses include accessory tongue, adenomatoid hyperplasia, and idiopathic hyperplasia of sublingual glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hamartoma arising in the root of the tongue presenting as polypoid mass. Correct diagnosis based on pathologic examination is essential for proper treatment.

The use of Reverse Micelles in Downstream Processing of Biotechnological Products
Kai Lun Lee,Ching Chieng Chong
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper aims to discuss the use of reverse micelles in downstream processing of biotechnological products. The interest in this technology is piqued firstly by various advantages of a liquid-liquid extraction process, among which are cost effectiveness, and ease of scaling up and implementing a continuous process for whole broth processing. The use of reverse micelles is thought to be among the most promising due to the high efficiency and selectivity being achieved in some systems. However, there are various issues that have impeded the widespread use of reverse micelles such as the identification and development of suitable surfactants and ligands; as well as difficulties in the back extraction process. These issues, as well as latest developments and applications of reverse micelles in downstream processing of biotechnological products will be discussed in this paper.
Economic Analysis of Intravenous vs. Subcutaneously Administered Trastuzumab for the Treatment of HER2+ Early Breast Cancer in Malaysia  [PDF]
Wei Ching Lee, Mohd Roslan Haron, Kong Leong Yu, Flora Li Tze Chong, Adrian Goh, Soraya Azmi
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2016.51001
Abstract: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 over expression has been reported in 23% - 37.3% of Malaysian breast cancer patients. Trastuzumab is a recommended adjuvant therapy for patients with early breast cancer. Currently, trastuzumab is administered intravenously but a new subcutaneous formulation could save time and costs. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health funds most of the costs of secondary care, including cancer treatment. We performed a cost-minimisation analysis from the Ministry of Health and societal perspectives by adapting an excel-based mathematical model. Model inputs comprised of drug, consumables and personnel costs. Data sources were government statistics, price lists, government salary scales and estimated personnel time costs. Doctors, nurses and pharmacists at four hospitals estimated the time to perform necessary tasks following their usual practice. Results showed that subcutaneous trastuzumab could, on average, save an estimated 43.5 minutes of pharmacists’ time and 11.6 minutes and 4.9 minutes of nurses’ time administering loading dose and subsequent doses, respectively. Total cost savings were RM7561 (8.7%) per patient per year, consisting of RM6496 (7.6%) reduction in drug cost and RM1065 (66.2%) reduction in non-drug costs. Similarly, cost savings from the societal perspective were RM7820 per patient per year, comprising RM6496 (7.6%) and RM1325 (63.7%) of drug and non-drug costs savings, respectively. Sensitivity analyses showed that cost savings on subcutaneous formulation ranged from RM3715 to RM11408 to the Ministry of Health. Overall, subcutaneous trastuzumab is estimated to be cost-saving from Ministry of Health and societal perspectives. Other benefits from saving patients’ and carers’ time and convenience could not be taken into account. This study was a first to investigate cost-savings from subcutaneous trastuzumab in a middle-income Asian country and the findings were consistent with findings of earlier studies. Given the favourable impact on time and costs, subcutaneous trastuzumab should be considered a viable option for Malaysian patients.
Combining Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics to Predict the Binding Modes of Flavonoid Derivatives with the Neuraminidase of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus
Shih-Jen Lu,Fok-Ching Chong
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13044496
Abstract: Control of flavonoid derivatives inhibitors release through the inhibition of neuraminidase has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of H1N1 influenza disease. We have employed molecular dynamics simulation techniques to optimize the 2009 H1N1 influenza neuraminidase X-ray crystal structure. Molecular docking of the compounds revealed the possible binding mode. Our molecular dynamics simulations combined with the solvated interaction energies technique was applied to predict the docking models of the inhibitors in the binding pocket of the H1N1 influenza neuraminidase. In the simulations, the correlation of the predicted and experimental binding free energies of all 20 flavonoid derivatives inhibitors is satisfactory, as indicated by R 2 = 0.75.
Hepatic cyst misdiagnosed as a gastric submucosal tumor: A case report
Joong-Min Park, Jin Kim, Ho-Il Kim, Chong-Suk Kim
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: We describe here a case of 51-year-old woman with a symptomatic hepatic cyst that was misdiagnosed as a gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and CT scan. The patient presented with an epigastric pain for two months. On endoscopy, a submucosal tumor was found on the cardia of the stomach. Based on EUS and abdominal CT scan, the lesion was diagnosed as a gastric duplication cyst or a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The operative plan was laparoscopic wedge resection for the GIST of the gastric cardia. A cystic mass arising from the left lateral segment of the liver was found at the laparoscopic examination. There was no abnormal finding at the gastric cardia. She was treated by laparoscopic hepatic wedge resection including the hepatic cyst using an endoscopic linear stapler.
Attenuation of Brain Nitrostative and Oxidative Damage by Brain Cooling during Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury
Jinn-Rung Kuo,Chong-Jeh Lo,Ching-Ping Chang,Mao- Tsun Lin,Chung-Ching Chio
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/145214
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether brain cooling causes attenuation of traumatic brain injury by reducing brain nitrostative and oxidative damage. Brain cooling was accomplished by infusion of 5 mL of 4°C saline over 5 minutes via the external jugular vein. Immediately after the onset of traumatic brain injury, rats were randomized into two groups and given 37°C or 4°C normal saline. Another group of rats were used as sham operated controls. Behavioral and biochemical assessments were conducted on 72 hours after brain injury or sham operation. As compared to those of the sham-operated controls, the 37°C saline-treated brain injured animals displayed motor deficits, higher cerebral contusion volume and incidence, higher oxidative damage (e.g., lower values of cerebral superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, but higher values of cerebral malondialdehyde), and higher nitrostative damage (e.g., higher values of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and 3-nitrotyrosine). All the motor deficits and brain nitrostative and oxidative damage were significantly reduced by retrograde perfusion of 4°C saline via the jugular vein. Our data suggest that brain cooling may improve the outcomes of traumatic brain injury in rats by reducing brain nitrostative and oxidative damage.
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