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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6059 matches for " Stefano Zoccolella "
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Current and emerging treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Stefano Zoccolella, Andrea Santamato, Paolo Lamberti
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S7788
Abstract: rrent and emerging treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Review (7093) Total Article Views Authors: Stefano Zoccolella, Andrea Santamato, Paolo Lamberti Published Date November 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 577 - 595 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S7788 Stefano Zoccolella1, Andrea Santamato2, Paolo Lamberti3 1Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Department of Medical and Neurological Sciences, Clinic of Nervous System Diseases, University of Foggia, Italy; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Foggia, OORR, Italy; 3Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Bari, Italy Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relatively rare neurodegenerative disorder of both upper and lower motoneurons. Currently, the management of ALS is essentially symptoms-based, and riluzole, an antiglutamatergic agent, is the only drug for the treatment of ALS approved by the food and drug administration. Objective: We reviewed current literature concerning emerging treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Methods: A Medline literature search was performed to identify all studies on ALS treatment published from January 1st, 1986 through August 31st, 2009. We selected papers concerning only disease-modifying therapy. Results: Forty-eight compounds were identified and reviewed in this study. Conclusions: Riluzole is the only compound that demonstrated a beneficial effect on ALS patients, but with only modest increase in survival. Although several drugs showed effective results in the animal models for ALS, none of them significantly prolonged survival or improved quality of life of ALS patients. Several factors have been implicated in explaining the predominantly negative results of numerous randomized clinical trials in ALS, including methodological problems in the use of animal-drug screening, the lack of assessment of pharmacokinetic profile of the drugs, and methodological pitfalls of clinical trials in ALS patients.
Current and emerging treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Stefano Zoccolella,Andrea Santamato,Paolo Lamberti
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2009,
Abstract: Stefano Zoccolella1, Andrea Santamato2, Paolo Lamberti31Azienda Ospedaliero-UniversitariaOspedali Riuniti, Department of Medical and Neurological Sciences, Clinic of Nervous System Diseases, University of Foggia, Italy; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Foggia, OORR, Italy; 3Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Bari, ItalyBackground: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relatively rare neurodegenerative disorder of both upper and lower motoneurons. Currently, the management of ALS is essentially symptoms-based, and riluzole, an antiglutamatergic agent, is the only drug for the treatment of ALS approved by the food and drug administration.Objective: We reviewed current literature concerning emerging treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Methods: A Medline literature search was performed to identify all studies on ALS treatment published from January 1st, 1986 through August 31st, 2009. We selected papers concerning only disease-modifying therapy.Results: Forty-eight compounds were identified and reviewed in this study.Conclusions: Riluzole is the only compound that demonstrated a beneficial effect on ALS patients, but with only modest increase in survival. Although several drugs showed effective results in the animal models for ALS, none of them significantly prolonged survival or improved quality of life of ALS patients. Several factors have been implicated in explaining the predominantly negative results of numerous randomized clinical trials in ALS, including methodological problems in the use of animal-drug screening, the lack of assessment of pharmacokinetic profile of the drugs, and methodological pitfalls of clinical trials in ALS patients.Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, therapy, drug, survival
Low Serum Urate Levels Are Associated to Female Gender in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Stefano Zoccolella, Carla Tortorella, Pietro Iaffaldano, Vita Direnzo, Mariangela D’Onghia, Elena Luciannatelli, Damiano Paolicelli, Paolo Livrea, Maria Trojano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040608
Abstract: Background Urate is a natural antioxidant and may prevent CNS tissue damage and the clinical manifestations of experimental autoimmune encephalitis. Results from clinical studies are conflicting and the contribution of urate to the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) remains uncertain. Objective To evaluate serum urate levels in MS patients and their relationships with clinical, demographic and MRI variables. Methods Levels of non-fasting serum uric acid and creatinine were determined by an automated enzymatic assay and glomerular filtration rate was assessed in 245 MS patients, in 252 age/sex-matched neurological controls (NC) and in 59 Healthy controls (HC). Results Median serum urate levels did not differ between MS patients (3.8 mg/dL), HC (4.0 mg/dl) and NC (4.0 mg/dL). Serum urate levels were lower in females than in males in all groups (p = <0.0001). In female-MS, serum urate levels (3.2 mg/dL) were lower compared to those in female HC (3.8; p = 0.01) and NC (3.5 mg/dL; p = 0.02), whereas in male-MS they(4.8 mg/dL) did not differ from those in male HC (4.5 mg/dl) and NC (4.8 mg/dL). Urate concentrations trended to be lower in Clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS (3.7 mg/dL) and in relapsing MS (3.7 mg/dL), compared to patients with progressive MS (4.4 mg/dL; p = 0.06), and in patients with an annual relapse rate (ARR) >2 (3.3 mg/dL) than in those with an ARR ≤2: 3.9 mg/dL; p = 0.05). Significant lower serum urate levels were found in females than in males in all clinical MS subtypes (p<0.01), separately evaluated. Female sex (beta: ?0.53; p<0.00001) was the most significant determinant of serum urate concentrations in MS patients on multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that low urate levels could be of significance in predominantly inflammatory phases of MS even at the early stage and mainly in females.
Impact of Natalizumab on Cognitive Performances and Fatigue in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective, Open-Label, Two Years Observational Study
Pietro Iaffaldano, Rosa Gemma Viterbo, Damiano Paolicelli, Guglielmo Lucchese, Emilio Portaccio, Benedetta Goretti, Vita Direnzo, Mariangela D'Onghia, Stefano Zoccolella, Maria Pia Amato, Maria Trojano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035843
Abstract: Background and Objectives Natalizumab reduces the relapse rate and magnetic resonance imaging activity in patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). So far the influence of natalizumab on cognitive functions and fatigue in MS remains uncertain. The aim of this prospective, open-label, observational study was to evaluate the possible effects of natalizumab on cognition and fatigue measures in RRMS patients treated for up to two years. Methods Cognitive performances were examined by the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB), the Stroop test (ST) and the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII), every 12 months. Patients who failed in at least 3 tests of the BRB and the ST were classified as cognitively impaired (CI). Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) was administered every 12 months to assess patient's self-reported fatigue. One hundred and 53 patients completed 1 and 2 year-natalizumab treatment, respectively. Results After 1 year of treatment the percentage of CI patients decreased from 29% (29/100) at baseline to 19% (19/100) (p = 0.031) and the mean baseline values of CII (13.52±6.85) and FSS (4.01±1.63) scores were significantly reduced (10.48±7.12, p<0.0001 and 3.61±1.56, p = 0.008). These significant effects were confirmed in the subgroup of patients treated up to two years. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a short-term NTZ treatment may significantly improve cognitive performances and fatigue in RRMS patients.
Cortical Thinning and Clinical Heterogeneity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Domenico Maria Mezzapesa, Eustachio D’Errico, Rosanna Tortelli, Eugenio Distaso, Rosa Cortese, Marianna Tursi, Francesco Federico, Stefano Zoccolella, Giancarlo Logroscino, Franca Dicuonzo, Isabella Laura Simone
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080748
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has heterogeneous clinical features that could be translated into specific patterns of brain atrophy. In the current study we have evaluated the relationship between different clinical expressions of classical ALS and measurements of brain cortical thickness. Cortical thickness analysis was conducted from 3D-MRI using FreeSurfer software in 29 ALS patients and 20 healthy controls. We explored three clinical traits of the disease, subdividing the patients into two groups for each of them: the bulbar or spinal onset, the higher or lower upper motor neuron burden, the faster or slower disease progression. We used both a whole brain vertex-wise analysis and a ROI analysis on primary motor areas. ALS patients showed cortical thinning in bilateral precentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and right occipital cortex. ALS patients with higher upper motor neuron burden showed a significant cortical thinning in the right precentral gyrus and in other frontal extra-motor areas, compared to healthy controls. ALS patients with spinal onset showed a significant cortical thinning in the right precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, compared to healthy controls. ALS patients with faster progressive disease showed a significant cortical thinning in widespread bilateral frontal and temporal areas, including the bilateral precentral gyrus, compared to healthy controls. Focusing on the primary motor areas, the ROI analysis revealed that the mean cortical thickness values were significantly reduced in ALS patients with higher upper motor neuron burden, spinal onset and faster disease progression related to healthy controls. In conclusion, the thickness of primary motor cortex could be a useful surrogate marker of upper motor neuron involvement in ALS; also our results suggest that cortical thinning in motor and non motor areas seem to reflect the clinical heterogeneity of the disease.
Feasibility Evaluation of Integrating UsabilityEngineering Issues in a Design for Multi-XCollaborative Framework  [PDF]
Stefano Filippi
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2011.31004
Abstract: Design for manufacturing, design for assembly, and, in general, design for X, are methods helping an effective generation of industrial products. In parallel with the development of these methods, the research about usability engineering has generated many important results, both from the design, and the evaluation and testing points of view. The research described in this paper aims at evaluating the feasibility of the integration of two new usability methods, the design for innovative usability - DFIU -, and the integrated method for usability evaluation and testing - IMUET -, in an existing design for X named design guidelines collaborative framework - DGLs-CF -. Indeed, the DGLs-CF is a design for multi-X method, given that it covers both the manufacturing and the verification phases of the industrial product lifecycle. All these methods are currently under development by the author’s research group. To evaluate this feasibility, the first task of the research aims at describing and classifying the components of the three methods. Next, these components are semantically related to each other. Finally, the last activity verifies the compatibility between the components of the two usability methods and the data structures of the DGLs-CF to check the feasibility from the implementation point of view. The result of this research will consist of precise indications both for the development of a design for multi-X collaborative framework covering homogeneously the design, manufacturing, verification, and use phases of the industrial product lifecycle, and to be used as a reference for researchers interested in considering the integration of usability issues in their design tools, methods, and processes.
A General Purpose Analysis Package  [PDF]
Stefano Federico
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.22022
Abstract: This paper presents a general-purpose analysis package able to solve two- and three- dimensional analysis problems. The system can use the following methods of solution: Successive Approximation (SA), Optimal Interpolation (OI), and 3D-Var. Analyses are given for the following parameters: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. The analysis package was applied to produce analyses at 6 h time interval for the period 1-11 August 2008. The period was selected for data availability and forty-one analyses were collected. The results show the validity of the different solutions, which can be chosen depending on the physical problem to solve and on the computational resources available. In particular, assuming the observations as the reference, all solutions show a decrease of the RMSE compared to the background. The decrease is consistent with the particular setting of the analysis system used in this paper. The comparison between different solutions shows that the SA converges to OI in few iterations, and that the SA solution with ten iteration is, in practice, equal to OI. Moreover, the 3D-Var method shows its potential to improve the analysis, once the horizontal and vertical length-scales and the background and observational errors are set optimally, because its solution may be sizeably different from two-dimensional methods.
Preliminary Results of a Data Assimilation System  [PDF]
Stefano Federico
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.31009
Abstract:

A data assimilation system combines all available information on the atmospheric state in a given time-window to produce an estimate of atmospheric conditions valid at a prescribed analysis time. Nowadays, increased computing power coupled with greater access to real-time asynoptic data is paving the way toward a new generation of high-resolution (i.e. on the order of 10 km) operational mesoscale analyses and forecasting systems. Moreover, better initial conditions are increasingly considered of the utmost importance for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at the short range (0 - 12 h). This paper presents a general-purpose data assimilation system, which is coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) to give the analyses for: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. In order to show its potential, the data assimilation systems applied to produce analyses over Central Europe. For this application the background field is given by a short-range forecast (12 h) of the RAMS and analyses are produced by 2D-Var with 0.25? horizontal resolution. Results show the validity of the analyses because they are closer to the observations, consistently with the settings of the data assimilation system. To quantify the impact of improved initial conditions on the forecast, the analyses are then used as initial conditions of a short-range (6 h) forecast of the RAMS model. The results show that the RMSE is effectively reduced for the one- and two hours forecast, with some improvement for the three-hours forecast.

Continued Fractions and Dynamics  [PDF]
Stefano Isola
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.57101
Abstract:

Several links between continued fractions and classical and less classical constructions in dynamical systems theory are presented and discussed.


Revealed Cores: Characterizations and Structure  [PDF]
Stefano Vannucci
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.614200
Abstract: Characterizations of the classes of all choice functions that select the cores or the externally stable cores induced by an underlying revealed dominance digraph are provided. Relying on such characterizations, the basic order-theoretic structure of the corresponding sets of revealed cores is also analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the poset of all revealed cores ordered by set inclusion is a median meet semilattice: therefore, any profile of revealed cores may be aggregated by means of the simple majority rule.
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