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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10126 matches for " Stefan Lehnert "
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Zero Point Energy Effects on Quantum Electrodynamics  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.64048
Abstract: The vacuum is not a state of empty space, but is populated by electromagnetic fluctuations at a lowest nonzero level, the Zero Point Energy (ZPE). As distinguished from conventional theories, such as that of the Standard Model, the present revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) includes the ZPE in its field equations. This leads to new results far beyond those obtained from conventional theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. Thus, the present theory results in massive elementary particles from the beginning, being independent of the theory by Higgs. This paper describes the background and results of RQED, summarizing the weak points of conventional theories, the unification of included fundamental concepts, the present basic field equations, new obtained results, and special points of experimental support. In other words, the new points stressed in this paper are in particular the relation between a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum and the ZPE, and a number of new experimentally supported results due to a nonzero ZPE energy density in the same state.
Some Consequences of Zero Point Energy  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2014.610032
Abstract: Both theory and experiments indicate that the vacuum is not a state of empty space, but is populated by electromagnetic fluctuations at a lowest nonzero level, the Zero Point Energy (ZPE). This debouches into considerable changes of fundamental physics, as shown by a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) applied to elementary particles, and by a revised ZPE frequency spectrum applied to the expanding universe. The Standard Model based on a vacuum state of empty space is thus replaced by RQED, thereby resulting in massive elementary particles from the beginning, independently of the theory by Higgs. Also the basic properties of the Higgs-like particle detected at CERN can be reproduced by RQED. It further leads to new fundamental results beyond the theories by Dirac and Higgs, such as to a deduced value of the elementary net charge, magnetic confinement of charged particle configurations, intrinsic local particle charges, photon spin with a very small but nonzero photon rest mass, and needle-like particle-wave properties which contribute to the understanding of the photoelectric effect and two-slit experiments. The real macroscopic pressure due to the revised ZPE frequency distribution further influences the dynamics of the expanding universe, by the ZPE photon pressure gradient acting as dark energy, and the ZPE photon energy density acting as dark matter. This results in a model being consistent with the observed scale, the rate of expansion, and the stability of a flat expanding observable universe.
Some Elucidations of the Theory on Revised Quantum Electrodynamics  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.611171
Abstract: A theory elaborated by the author on revised quantum electrodynamics (RQED) is elucidated in a condensed form on special important points. The latter concerns the basic electromagnetic field equations in a vacuum state, the connection of this state with the Zero Point Energy (ZPE), the procedure of quantization, steady states of particle models, the concept of the individual photon, and examples on experimental support of the theory.
On the Cosmical Zero Point Energy Density  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710100
Abstract: The frequency spectrum of the cosmical Zero Point Energy (ZPE) and its total density are so far unknown in their details. In the present complementary investigation, a revised theory forms the basis for studies of this concept in two respects. It first applies to the observable universe considered as an entity, as well as to included subregions such as the galaxies with supermassive black holes. Second, experiments are proposed on the maximum Casimir force arising between two metal plates of different materials and with a vanishing air gap in their spacing. This serves the purpose of making an indirect determination of the ZPE energy density in the laboratory, i.e. at the Earth’s orbit. The ZPE energy density is interpreted as dark matter density and its pressure gradient as dark energy force density.
Revised Quantum Electrodynamics in a Condensed Form  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.711117
Abstract: This theory aims beyond the possibilities being available from the Standard Model. Examples are given by the directly obtained rest masses of the elementary particles, the deduced values of the elementary charge and of the mass of the boson detected by CERN which are close to their experimental data, and by an incorporated spin of the photon.
Intrinsic Particle Charges and the Strong Force  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.87067
Abstract: Starting from a revised quantum electrodynamic theory by the author, an attempt is made to elaborate a particle model of quarks which in their turn form triangular neutron and proton configurations. These “quark particles” are found to be electrically neutral but contain intrinsic electrical charges of both polarities, being an order of magnitude larger than the elementary charge, e. The main interaction force between two such particles is further found to have an attractive short-range character, and it becomes nearly two orders of magnitude larger than the repulsive force which would arise from two interacting elementary charges. The spatial potential distribution of this force corresponds to an inner barrier, an intermediate well, and an outer barrier. The well is found to have a depth being nearly equal to the binding energy 8 MeV of the neutron. The distribution of the barriers and the well makes a stable position possible for the mutual particle distance. The deduced radii of the outer shell and of the core are further of the same magnitude as the known nuclear radii of the neutron and proton. All these deduced characteristic features are the same as those of the known strong force concept. This raises the question whether the present results could provide a first step in a unification of the electromagnetic and the strong nuclear forces.
Impacts of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics on Fundamental Physics  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2018.105008
Abstract: A revised quantum electrodynamic theory by the author is reconsidered, in respect to the basic concepts established by M. Planck and H.B.G. Casimir on the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) and by A. Einstein on Special Relativity. Attention is given to the new properties of its field equations and their applications. These equations include results not being available from conventional theory and the Standard Model. This concerns the internal structure of elementary particles, such as the photon, the electron, muon and tauon, the Z boson, and the so called Higgs particle detected in the experiments at the laboratory of CERN. A possible unification of electrodynamics and the strong nuclear force is further provided by the theory. Finally, there are aspects on the expanding universe represented by a new interpretation of dark matter and dark energy in terms of the ZPE.
Some Thoughts upon Long-Range Interaction and Entangled States  [PDF]
Bo Lehnert
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2018.1012015
Abstract: The problems of long-range interaction and associated questions on entangled states are reconsidered in terms of a recently developed revised quantum electrodynamic theory by the author, as being applied to subatomic systems. There are indications that the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics do not necessarily have to be in conflict. But more investigations are required for a full understanding to be obtained on these problems.
Modeling the asymmetric evolution of a mouse and rat-specific microRNA gene cluster intron 10 of the Sfmbt2 gene
Stefan Lehnert, Vladimir Kapitonov, Pushpike J Thilakarathne, Frans C Schuit
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-257
Abstract: We studied a large miRNA gene cluster in intron 10 of the mouse Sfmbt2 gene using bioinformatic tools.Mice and rats are unique to harbor a 55-65 Kb DNA sequence in intron 10 of the Sfmbt2 gene. This intronic region is rich in regularly repeated B1 retrotransposons together with inverted self-complementary CA/TG microsatellites. The smallest repeats unit, called MSHORT1 in the mouse, was duplicated 9 times in a tandem head-to-tail array to form 2.5 Kb MLONG1 units. The center of the mouse miRNA gene cluster consists of 13 copies of MLONG1. BLAST analysis of MSHORT1 in the mouse shows that the repeat unit is unique for intron 10 of the Sfmbt2 gene and suggest a dual phase model for growth of the miRNA gene cluster: arrangment of 10 MSHORT1 units into MLONG1 and further duplication of 13 head-to-tail MLONG1 units in the center of the miRNA gene cluster. Rats have a similar arrangment of repeat units in intron 10 of the Sfmbt2 gene. The discrepancy between 65 miRNA genes in the mouse cluster as compared to only 1 miRNA gene in the corresponding rat repeat cluster is ascribed to sequence differences between MSHORT1 and RSHORT1 that result in lateral-shifted, less-stable miRNA precursor hairpins for RSHORT1.Our data provides new evidence for the emerging concept that lineage-specific retroposons have played an important role in the birth of new miRNA genes during evolution. The large difference in the number of miRNA genes in two closely related species (65 versus 1, mice versus rats) indicates that this species-specific evolution can be a rapid process.Micro RNAs (miRNA's) are 19 to 22 nt long, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that can fine-tune the expression of protein-encoding genes [1,2]. One example is the post-transcriptional repression of mRNA targets involving the so called miRNA "seed" which is nt 2-8 of the mature miRNA which recognizes complementary bases in the 3'untranslated region of the mRNA target [3]. miRNA genes form primary transcripts that are convert
Evidence for Co-Evolution between Human MicroRNAs and Alu-Repeats
Stefan Lehnert, Peter Van Loo, Pushpike J. Thilakarathne, Peter Marynen, Geert Verbeke, Frans C. Schuit
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004456
Abstract: This paper connects Alu repeats, the most abundant repetitive elements in the human genome and microRNAs, small RNAs that alter gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Base-pair complementarity could be demonstrated between the seed sequence of a subset of human microRNAs and Alu repeats that are integrated parallel (sense) in mRNAs. The most common target site coincides with the evolutionary most conserved part of Alu. A primate-specific gene cluster on chromosome 19 encodes the majority of miRNAs that target the most conserved sense Alu site. The individual miRNA genes within this cluster are flanked by an Alu-LINE signature, which has been duplicated with the clustered miRNA genes. Gene duplication events in this locus are supported by comparing repeat length variations of the LINE elements within the cluster with those in the rest of the chromosome. Thus, a dual relationship exists between an evolutionary young miRNA cluster and their Alu targets that may have evolved in the same time window. One hypothesis for this dual relationship is that these miRNAs could protect against too high rates of duplicative transposition, which would destroy the genome.
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