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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9852 matches for " Stefan Bornholdt "
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Expectation bubbles in a spin model of markets: Intermittency from frustration across scales
Stefan Bornholdt
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1142/S0129183101001845
Abstract: A simple spin model is studied, motivated by the dynamics of traders in a market where expectation bubbles and crashes occur. The dynamics is governed by interactions which are frustrated across different scales: While ferromagnetic couplings connect each spin to its local neighborhood, an additional coupling relates each spin to the global magnetization. This new coupling is allowed to be anti-ferromagnetic. The resulting frustration causes a metastable dynamics with intermittency and phases of chaotic dynamics. The model reproduces main observations of real economic markets as power-law distributed returns and clustered volatility.
Annealing schedule from population dynamics
Stefan Bornholdt
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.59.3942
Abstract: We introduce a dynamical annealing schedule for population-based optimization algorithms with mutation. On the basis of a statistical mechanics formulation of the population dynamics, the mutation rate adapts to a value maximizing expected rewards at each time step. Thereby, the mutation rate is eliminated as a free parameter from the algorithm.
Genetic algorithm dynamics on a rugged landscape
Stefan Bornholdt
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.57.3853
Abstract: The genetic algorithm is an optimization procedure motivated by biological evolution and is successfully applied to optimization problems in different areas. A statistical mechanics model for its dynamics is proposed based on the parent-child fitness correlation of the genetic operators, making it applicable to general fitness landscapes. It is compared to a recent model based on a maximum entropy ansatz. Finally it is applied to modeling the dynamics of a genetic algorithm on the rugged fitness landscape of the NK model.
Reliability of regulatory networks and its evolution
Stefan Braunewell,Stefan Bornholdt
Quantitative Biology , 2008,
Abstract: The problem of reliability of the dynamics in biological regulatory networks is studied in the framework of a generalized Boolean network model with continuous timing and noise. Using well-known artificial genetic networks such as the repressilator, we discuss concepts of reliability of rhythmic attractors. In a simple evolution process we investigate how overall network structure affects the reliability of the dynamics. In the course of the evolution, networks are selected for reliable dynamics. We find that most networks can be easily evolved towards reliable functioning while preserving the original function.
Superstability of the yeast cell cycle dynamics: Ensuring causality in the presence of biochemical stochasticity
Stefan Braunewell,Stefan Bornholdt
Quantitative Biology , 2006,
Abstract: Gene regulatory dynamics is governed by molecular processes and therefore exhibits an inherent stochasticity. However, for the survival of an organism it is a strict necessity that this intrinsic noise does not prevent robust functioning of the system. It is still an open question how dynamical stability is achieved in biological systems despite the omnipresent fluctuations. In this paper we investigate the cell-cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an example of a well-studied organism. We study a genetic network model of eleven genes that coordinate the cell-cycle dynamics using a modeling framework which generalizes the concept of discrete threshold dynamics. By allowing for fluctuations in the transcription/translation times, we introduce noise in the model, accounting for the effects of biochemical stochasticity. We study the dynamical attractor of the cell cycle and find a remarkable robustness against fluctuations of this kind. We identify mechanisms that ensure reliability in spite of fluctuations: 'Catcher' states and persistence of activity levels contribute significantly to the stability of the yeast cell cycle despite the inherent stochasticity.
Reliability of genetic networks is evolvable
Stefan Braunewell,Stefan Bornholdt
Quantitative Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.060902
Abstract: Control of the living cell functions with remarkable reliability despite the stochastic nature of the underlying molecular networks -- a property presumably optimized by biological evolution. We here ask to what extent the property of a stochastic dynamical network to produce reliable dynamics is an evolvable trait. Using an evolutionary algorithm based on a deterministic selection criterion for the reliability of dynamical attractors, we evolve dynamical networks of noisy discrete threshold nodes. We find that, starting from any random network, reliability of the attractor landscape can often be achieved with only few small changes to the network structure. Further, the evolvability of networks towards reliable dynamics while retaining their function is investigated and a high success rate is found.
Avalanches in Self-Organized Critical Neural Networks: A Minimal Model for the Neural SOC Universality Class
Matthias Rybarsch, Stefan Bornholdt
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093090
Abstract: The brain keeps its overall dynamics in a corridor of intermediate activity and it has been a long standing question what possible mechanism could achieve this task. Mechanisms from the field of statistical physics have long been suggesting that this homeostasis of brain activity could occur even without a central regulator, via self-organization on the level of neurons and their interactions, alone. Such physical mechanisms from the class of self-organized criticality exhibit characteristic dynamical signatures, similar to seismic activity related to earthquakes. Measurements of cortex rest activity showed first signs of dynamical signatures potentially pointing to self-organized critical dynamics in the brain. Indeed, recent more accurate measurements allowed for a detailed comparison with scaling theory of non-equilibrium critical phenomena, proving the existence of criticality in cortex dynamics. We here compare this new evaluation of cortex activity data to the predictions of the earliest physics spin model of self-organized critical neural networks. We find that the model matches with the recent experimental data and its interpretation in terms of dynamical signatures for criticality in the brain. The combination of signatures for criticality, power law distributions of avalanche sizes and durations, as well as a specific scaling relationship between anomalous exponents, defines a universality class characteristic of the particular critical phenomenon observed in the neural experiments. Thus the model is a candidate for a minimal model of a self-organized critical adaptive network for the universality class of neural criticality. As a prototype model, it provides the background for models that may include more biological details, yet share the same universality class characteristic of the homeostasis of activity in the brain.
Morphogenesis by coupled regulatory networks: Reliable control of positional information and proportion regulation
Thimo Rohlf,Stefan Bornholdt
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2009.07.023
Abstract: Based on a non-equilibrium mechanism for spatial pattern formation we study how position information can be controlled by locally coupled discrete dynamical networks, similar to gene regulation networks of cells in a developing multicellular organism. As an example we study the developmental problems of domain formation and proportion regulation in the presence of noise, as well as in the presence of cell flow. We find that networks that solve this task exhibit a hierarchical structure of information processing and are of similar complexity as developmental circuits of living cells. Proportion regulation is scalable with system size and leads to sharp, precisely localized boundaries of gene expression domains, even for large numbers of cells. A detailed analysis of noise-induced dynamics, using a mean-field approximation, shows that noise in gene expression states stabilizes (rather than disrupts) the spatial pattern in the presence of cell movements, both for stationary as well as growing systems. Finally, we discuss how this mechanism could be realized in the highly dynamic environment of growing tissues in multi-cellular organisms.
Self-organized criticality and adaptation in discrete dynamical networks
Thimo Rohlf,Stefan Bornholdt
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: It has been proposed that adaptation in complex systems is optimized at the critical boundary between ordered and disordered dynamical regimes. Here, we review models of evolving dynamical networks that lead to self-organization of network topology based on a local coupling between a dynamical order parameter and rewiring of network connectivity, with convergence towards criticality in the limit of large network size $N$. In particular, two adaptive schemes are discussed and compared in the context of Boolean Networks and Threshold Networks: 1) Active nodes loose links, frozen nodes aquire new links, 2) Nodes with correlated activity connect, de-correlated nodes disconnect. These simple local adaptive rules lead to co-evolution of network topology and -dynamics. Adaptive networks are strikingly different from random networks: They evolve inhomogeneous topologies and broad plateaus of homeostatic regulation, dynamical activity exhibits $1/f$ noise and attractor periods obey a scale-free distribution. The proposed co-evolutionary mechanism of topological self-organization is robust against noise and does not depend on the details of dynamical transition rules. Using finite-size scaling, it is shown that networks converge to a self-organized critical state in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we discuss open questions and directions for future research, and outline possible applications of these models to adaptive systems in diverse areas.
Partitioning and modularity of graphs with arbitrary degree distribution
Joerg Reichardt,Stefan Bornholdt
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.76.015102
Abstract: We solve the graph bi-partitioning problem in dense graphs with arbitrary degree distribution using the replica method. We find the cut-size to scale universally with . In contrast, earlier results studying the problem in graphs with a Poissonian degree distribution had found a scaling with ^1/2 [Fu and Anderson, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19, 1986]. The new results also generalize to the problem of q-partitioning. They can be used to find the expected modularity Q [Newman and Grivan, Phys. Rev. E, 69, 2004] of random graphs and allow for the assessment of statistical significance of the output of community detection algorithms.
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