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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 315 matches for " Stef Smits "
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Multiple-use services as an alternative to rural water supply services: A characterisation of the approach
Stef Smits,Barbara van Koppen,Patrick Moriarty,John Butterworth
Water Alternatives , 2010,
Abstract: Multiple-use services (MUS) have recently gained increased attention as an alternative form of providing rural water services in an integrated manner. This stems from the growing recognition that users anyway tend to use water systems for multiple purposes. This paper aims to characterise this practice on the basis of case evidence collected in eight countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The cases show that people almost universally use water for both domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. Although seldom the main source of people’s income or food production, these activities are of considerable importance for people’s livelihoods. The extent to which people use water for multiple purposes is closely related to the level of access to water expressed in the form of a water ladder in this paper. The case studies presented demonstrate how access is created by different types and combinations of well-known technologies. Additional financial and management measures are required to ensure sustainability of services. Despite the practical feasibility of the MUS approach, it is not yet widely applied by service providers and sector agencies due to observed barriers in institutional uptake. A better characterisation of MUS, alongside a learning-driven stakeholder process was able to overcome some of these barriers and improve the consideration of multiple uses of water in policy and practice.
Finding practical approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management
John Butterworth,Jeroen Warner,Patrick Moriarty,Stef Smits
Water Alternatives , 2010,
Abstract: Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practical in-finding solutions to water scarcity. A range of lighter, more pragmatic and context-adapted approaches, strategies and entry points are illustrated with examples from projects and initiatives in mainly 'developing' countries. The authors argue that a more service-orientated (WASH, irrigation and ecosystem services), locally rooted and balanced approach to IWRM that better matches contexts and capacities should build on such strategies, in addition to the necessary but long-term policy reforms and river basin institution-building at higher levels. Examples in this set of papers not only show that the 'lighter', more opportunistic and incremental approach has potential as well as limitations but also await wider piloting and adoption.
Power-Sharing, Conflict and Transition in Burundi: Twenty Years of Trial and Error Machtteilung, Konflikt und Wandel in Burundi: Zwanzig Jahre Versuch und Irrtum
Stef Vandeginste
Africa Spectrum , 2009,
Abstract: For the past twenty years, Burundi has experimented with powersharing as an instrument of political liberalisation, democratisation and conflict resolution. This contribution analyses the different meanings the concept of power-sharing has had throughout Burundi’s recent and extremely violent political transition, in particular during the lengthy peace process. It shows how national and international actors have found inspiration in the toolbox of consociationalism to negotiate and design the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi signed in August 2000 and its posttransition Constitution. Power-sharing has been instrumental in achieving the – short-term – objective of war termination. It has also de-ethnicised political competition and reduced the (potentially) destabilising effect of elections. Measured against more ambitious state-building objectives (democracy, rule of law, accountable and effective governance), power-sharing has (so far) not been able to make a difference. Several factors and developments threaten the “survival” of the power-sharing model in Burundi. In Burundi wird seit zwanzig Jahren mit Power-Sharing als Instrument politischer Liberalisierung, Demokratisierung und Konfliktl sung experimentiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert, welche unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen das Konzept der Machtteilung in der jüngsten und extrem gewaltt tigen Entwicklungsphase Burundis angenommen hat, insbesondere w hrend des langwierigen Friedensprozesses. Er zeigt auf, inwieweit nationale und internationale Akteure sich bei der Aushandlung und Planung des Arusha-Abkommens zu Frieden und Vers hnung in Burundi, das im August 2000 unterzeichnet wurde, sowie der anschlie enden Verfassung am Instrumentarium der Konkordanzdemokratie bedient haben. Power-Sharing erwies sich als nützlich, das kurzfristige Ziel einer Beendigung des Krieges zu erreichen, und trug zur De-Ethnisierung des politischen Wettbewerbs und zur Reduktion (potenziell) destabilisierender Effekte w hrend der Wahlen bei. Gemessen an ambitionierteren Zielen im Sinne des State-Building, wie Demokratie, Rechtsstaatlichkeit, verantwortliche und effiziente Regierungsführung, hat Power-Sharing (bis jetzt) nicht wirklich zu einem Wandel geführt. In Burundi sind zudem verschiedene Faktoren und Prozesse zu beobachten, die das “überleben” des Machtteilungsmodells gef hrden.
Review: Jeremy I. Levitt, Illegal Peace in Africa: An Inquiry into the Legality of Power Sharing with Warlords, Rebels, and Junta (2012) Buchbesprechung: Jeremy I. Levitt, Illegal Peace in Africa: An Inquiry into the Legality of Power Sharing with Warlords, Rebels, and Junta (2012)
Stef Vandeginste
Africa Spectrum , 2012,
Abstract: Review of the monograph: Jeremy I. Levitt, Illegal Peace in Africa: An Inquiry into the Legality of Power Sharing with Warlords, Rebels, and Junta, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-521-88868-4, 314 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Jeremy I. Levitt, Illegal Peace in Africa: An Inquiry into the Legality of Power Sharing with Warlords, Rebels, and Junta, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-521-88868-4, 314 Seiten
A note on Youden's J and its cost ratio
Niels Smits
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-89
Abstract: When using this index, one implicitly uses decision theory with a ratio of misclassification costs which is equal to one minus the prevalence proportion of the disease. It is doubtful whether this cost ratio truly represents the decision maker's preferences. Moreover, in populations with a different prevalence, a selected threshold is optimal with reference to a different cost ratio.The Youden index is not a truly optimal decision rule for setting thresholds because its cost ratio varies with prevalence. Researchers should look into their cost ratio and employ it in a decision theoretic framework to obtain genuinely optimal thresholds.In the clinical field there is a need for obtaining optimal cut offs on markers or tests for separating persons with a specific condition (diseased) from those without this condition (healthy). The quality of a clinical test with threshold c is often expressed in a table such as Additional file 1: Table S1.In this table, D is the diagnosis; a person is either diseased (D+) or healthy (D-). The prevalence P is the proportion of persons diseased. T is the test result; c is a cut-off point on the test. Persons with test scores larger than or equal to c are tested positive and persons scoring below c are tested negative. Unfortunately, one is commonly faced with an imperfect relation between diagnosis and test result, and therefore there are four possible outcomes: false positives, true negatives, true positives, and false negatives. The abbreviations (FPc, TNc, TPc, and FNc) in Additional file 1: Table S1 represent the proportion of the population in each cell. When c changes, these proportions, and the level of the test Qc change as well. The quality of a medical test is often expressed in terms of the two conditional probabilities describing its performance with reference to the diagnosis. Sensitivity (SE) is the probability that a diseased person is tested as such (see, bottom of the table). Specificity (SP) is the probability that a h
Can a Map Be a Geographic Information Retrieval Tool?
Jan Smits
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2000,
Abstract: This paper is intended to open up discussion on potential co-operation, which would enable participants restricted by unequal resources and technologies to participate in a pan-European project. The idea has not yet been fully developed but the purpose of the project is to allow digital maps to function not only as geographic resources and educational tools, but to act simultaneously as an interface to metadata-databases. These would contain de-scriptions of maps and spatial databases, as well as locational or geo-referenced resources in books, periodicals, and the Internet.
The Necessity and Nuisance of Survival, or how to Keep to Our Senses
Jan Smits
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 1999,
Abstract:
Een problematisch symbool van vooruitgang. De representatie van de spoorwegen in De Hollandsche Illustratie (1864-1884)
Thomas Smits
TS·> Tijdschrift voor Tijdschrift-studies , 2012,
Abstract: The railways are one of the most vivid symbols of the Nineteenth Century. Their strong symbolic meaning is, however, far from unproblematic. Representations of the railways seem to reflect both a strong confidence in 'the genius' of the Nineteenth Century, but also a strong fear of what the future will bring. The railways figure prominently in the illustrations of one of the first Dutch illustrated periodicals: De Hollandsche Illustratie (1864-1884). The two symbolic meanings of the railways can be found in the pages of this Dutch magazine. In this article I argue that the character of these representations depends largely on the specific possibilities of the medium, i.e. the illustrated periodical in a Dutch context. The limited possibilities of the Hollandsche Illustratie are the reason why most of the illustrations have a foreign origin, despite the strong development of the Dutch railways in the period and the wish of the editors to create a magazine with 'national' content. The limited possibilities also prevented a quick reaction to current affairs. I argue that the editors of De Hollandsche Illustratie tried to increase the value of illustrations they bought from other magazines by giving them a stronger symbolic meaning.
Moving close to parents and adult children in the Netherlands: the influence of support needs
Annika Smits
Demographic Research , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, the extent to which support needs lead to moves of adult children (aged 30 and above) to within one kilometer of their parents and vice versa is examined. Using Netherlands population data from 2004 and 2005, it is found that the divorce of the adult child increases the likelihood of moving close to parents, especially in the event of recent divorce. A recent first birth in the adult child's household also leads to moving close to parents, whereas having children aged one and above makes moves of the parents close to the adult child more likely.
The potential use of the leptospiral major outer membrane lipoprotein LipL32 in the diagnosis of leptospirosis
Smits Henk
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Abstract:
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