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Diferen as na preven o da Aids entre homens e mulheres jovens de escolas públicas em S o Paulo, SP
Antunes Maria Cristina,Peres Camila Alves,Paiva Vera,Stall Ron
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002,
Abstract: OBJETIVOS: Estudar as práticas sexuais de risco para a infec o pelo HIV de estudantes adultos jovens (18 a 25 anos) de escolas públicas noturnas e avaliar as diferen as de gênero e o impacto de um programa de preven o de Aids. MéTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de interven o, em quatro escolas da regi o central do Município de S o Paulo, SP, divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: interven o e controle. Uma amostra de 394 estudantes participou do estudo, e 77% completaram o questionário pós-interven o. Realizaram-se "Oficinas de Sexo Mais Seguro" para discutir simbolismo da Aids, percep o de risco, influências das normas de gênero nas atitudes, informa es sobre Aids, corpo erótico e reprodutivo, prazer sexual e negocia o do uso do preservativo. Para a análise estatística, foram empregados os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e a análise de co-variancia. RESULTADOS: A freqüência do uso consistente de preservativo foi baixa (33%), e existiam diferen as significativas entre homens e mulheres com referência à sexualidade e à preven o de Aids. Ao avaliar os efeitos das oficinas, as mudan as foram estatisticamente significativas entre as mulheres, que relataram maior propor o de sexo protegido entre outros aspectos relacionados à preven o da Aids. As mudan as n o foram significativas entre os homens. CONCLUS ES: O risco para a infec o pelo HIV pode ser diminuído, mas resultados mais expressivos podem ser encontrados se forem consideradas as diferen as de gênero e de papéis sexuais por meio de programas comunitários específicos de longa dura o.
Diferen?as na preven??o da Aids entre homens e mulheres jovens de escolas públicas em S?o Paulo, SP
Antunes,Maria Cristina; Peres,Camila Alves; Paiva,Vera; Stall,Ron; Hearst,Norman;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102002000500013
Abstract: objectives: to investigate risk sexual for hiv infection among young adult night school students (18 to 25 years old) and to assess gender differences in sexual practices and the impact of aids prevention program. methods: a longitudinal intervention study was carried out among students of four public inner-city night schools, in the city of s?o paulo, brazil, randomized into two groups: an intervention group and a control one. three hundred and ninety-four students participated in the study; 77% completed the post-intervention questionnaire. the intervention consisted of a "safer sex workshop" where the following topics were discussed: aids symbolism, risk perception, influences of gender norms on attitudes, aids-related knowledge, erotic and reproductive body, sexual pleasure, and condom use negotiation. statistical analysis was performed using pearson's chi-square test and variance. results: the frequency of condom use was low (33%). there were significant gender differences concerning sexuality and aids prevention. workshop evaluation showed a statistically significant impact on women, who improved chiefly their attitudes regarding safer sex. changes were not significant among men. conclusions: hiv risk infection can be lowered but more significant results can be achieved if gender differences and sexual scripts are taken into account while developing specific long-term community programs.
Fatores psicossociais e a infec??o por HIV em mulheres, Maringá, PR
Alves,Rozilda Neves; Kovács,Maria Júlia; Stall,Ron; Paiva,Vera;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102002000500006
Abstract: objective: to analyze the risk perception among hiv-positive women before getting a positive test result. methods: an exploratory study using in-depth interviews was conducted among 26 women who attended the outpatient clinic of a regional health center in maringá, brazil. the sample was drawn according to the women's availability. the interviews were carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire with open and closed questions on social-demographics, knowledge of primary and secondary prevention, risk perception before getting the test results, and impact of the diagnosis on their lives and sexual activity. data was assessed using content analysis. results: though the participants were aware that anyone could get infected, none of them believed they could actually be infected. psychological mechanisms such as denial, avoidance, thought omnipotence, and projection are encouraged by practices and gender-dominant relationships in the brazilian culture, which increases women's vulnerability to hiv infection. they feel helpless and many have unprotected sex with their partners, and are prone to unwanted pregnancies and re-infection. conclusion: hiv prevention programs should take into account psychological, social, economical and cultural aspects that impact on women's vulnerability before and after being infected. for a wider outreach of actions, programs cannot to be restricted to massive information diffusion and need to apply psychoeducational strategies to small groups of women not only to increase their medical knowledge but also to enhance their awareness.
Fatores psicossociais e a infec o por HIV em mulheres, Maringá, PR
Alves Rozilda Neves,Kovács Maria Júlia,Stall Ron,Paiva Vera
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Analisar a percep o do risco de infec o em mulheres infectadas pelo HIV, antes de elas receberem o resultado positivo para essa patologia. MéTODOS: Estudo exploratório com entrevistas em profundidade em amostra de conveniência constituída de 26 mulheres que freqüentavam o ambulatório de um centro regional de saúde em Maringá, PR. A entrevista foi semidirigida com um roteiro de perguntas fechadas e abertas sobre características sociodemográficos, conhecimento sobre preven o primária e secundária, percep o de risco antes do teste positivo para HIV, impacto do resultado em suas vidas -- inclusive a sexual -- depois de saberem ser portadoras do vírus. Os resultados foram analisados pela metodologia de análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Apesar de ter consciência de que essa doen a pode atingir qualquer um, nenhuma das 26 mulheres estudadas acreditava estar infectada pelo HIV/Aids. Os mecanismos psicológicos, "nega o", "evita o", "onipotência do pensamento" e "proje o" foram os que puderam ser identificados como aqueles que as mulheres mais utilizaram para lidar com as dificuldades e as ansiedades decorrentes da percep o de risco e das normas e rela es de gêneros hegem nicas presentes na cultura brasileira. Verificou-se que, se o uso desses mecanismos alivia a angústia, por outro lado aumenta a vulnerabilidade das mulheres. Elas se sentem incapazes de atuar, e muitas mantêm rela es sexuais desprotegidas com os parceiros, expondo-se à gravidez indesejada e à reinfec o. CONCLUS ES: Os programas de preven o do HIV devem considerar também aspectos psicológicos, socioecon micos e culturais que interferem na vulnerabilidade das mulheres, antes e depois da infec o. Para haver maior alcance de suas a es, os programas devem ir além da distribui o massiva de informa es e usar abordagens psicoeducativas em pequenos grupos que estimulem a conscientiza o das mulheres para além das informa es biomédicas.
HIV Infection and Sexual Risk among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
M. Reuel Friedman, Chongyi Wei, Mary Lou Klem, Anthony J. Silvestre, Nina Markovic, Ron Stall
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087139
Abstract: Objectives To estimate the number of men who have sex with men and women who are HIV-positive in the United States, and to compare HIV prevalence rates between men who have sex with men and women, men who have sex with men only, and men who have sex with women exclusively. Methods Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reports referencing HIV prevalence and men who have sex with men and women. We searched PubMed and Ovid PsycINFO for peer-reviewed, U.S.-based articles reporting on HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men and women. We conducted event rate, effect size, moderation and sensitivity analyses. Results We estimate that 1.0% of U.S. males are bisexually-behaving, and that 121,800 bisexually-behaving men are HIV-positive. Men who have sex with men and women are less than half as likely to be HIV-positive as men who have sex with men only (16.9% vs. 33.3%; OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.54), but more than five times as likely to be HIV-positive as men who have sex with women exclusively (18.3% vs. 3.5%; OR = 5.71, 95% CI: 3.47, 9.39). They are less likely to engage in unprotected receptive anal intercourse than men who have sex with men only (15.9% vs. 35.0%; OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.46). Men who have sex with men and women in samples with high racial/ethnic minority proportions had significantly higher HIV prevalence than their counterparts in low racial/ethnic minority samples. Conclusions This represents the first meta-analysis of HIV prevalence in the U.S. between men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only. Data collection, research, and HIV prevention and care delivery specifically tailored to men who have sex with men and women are necessary to better quantify and ameliorate this population’s HIV burden.
Preven??o de doen?as sexualmente transmissíveis e Aids entre jogadores juniores
Silva,Wilson Aparecido; Buchalla,Cassia Maria; Paiva,Vera; Latorre,Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Stall,Ron; Hearst,Norman;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102002000500010
Abstract: introduction/objective: aids cases are steadily increasing among young people and there are few studies describing young male vulnerability to hiv. a study was carried out aiming at developing a std/aids prevention program for junior professional soccer players. methods: study participants were twenty-five junior soccer players of a major league professional team of the city of campinas, brazil. there were 2 segments. in segment 1, participants were given a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, specific gender-related behaviors, condom use, hiv/aids knowledge and prevention, and sports associated exposure risk. in segment 2, 17 sessions of group dynamics were carried out. many forms of expression (speech, writing, pictures, and videos) were encouraged to grasp participants' thoughts on std/aids-related matters. results: participants showed good knowledge on hiv transmission but they were poorly informed on reproduction and stds. unwanted pregnancy is their main concern. as for condom use, 73% consistently used condoms with casual partners (73%), and only 27% consistently used them with regular partners. also, 58% considered risky to have hiv-positive players among them. conclusions: young players do not consider themselves vulnerable despite their chances of hiv infection and unwanted pregnancy. they have poor knowledge about the human body and reproductive health. soccer milieu as well as other sports milieus create great opportunities for prevention programs, where they may have a multiplier effect since athletes are often regarded as role models for children and youngsters.
Caminhoneiros de rota curta e sua vulnerabilidade ao HIV, Santos, SP
Villarinho,Luciana; Bezerra,Ivanilda; Lacerda,Regina; Latorre,Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Paiva,Vera; Stall,Ron; Hearst,Norman;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102002000500009
Abstract: objective: to describe the vulnerability to sexually transmitted hiv/aids of short distance truck drivers. methods: using a snowball sampling procedure, 279 truck drivers working in the port area and vicinities, unions and workers' associations of santos, brazil, were selected and interviewed. face-to-face interviews were carried out using open and closed questions covered demographic characteristics, sexual practices, drug use, knowledge of hiv and aids, previous contact with hiv prevention programs, and perception of their vulnerability to hiv and aids. a descriptive analysis was carried out and reports are presented to illustrate some scenarios of vulnerability. results: of all 279 truck drivers interviewed, 93% had a stable female partner, 40% engaged in casual sexual with female partners, and 19% said to have sex with other regular partners. vulnerability to hiv is increased by inconsistent condom use in all categories of sexual partners. long periods away from home seem not to be the only factor for their vulnerability to hiv as seen in studies on long distance truck drivers. conclusions: the macho culture and traditional male behaviors are prominently seen among truck drivers. there is a need of investing more on prevention in this professional group. prevention programs at the work environment seem to be a promising strategy, since it allows a better understanding of the workers' setting and development of customized educational interventions.
The Importance of Professional Learning Communities for School Improvement  [PDF]
Leslie Jones, Gregg Stall, Debra Yarbrough
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.45052
Abstract:

In this article, we begin with a discussion of the development and sustaining of professional learning communities. We proposed that PLCs can be an effective form of professional development for teachers. This professional development can be facilitated by the principal. The necessary cultural components for effective professional learning communities are also included. Embedded in the discussion is the role of the principal in facilitating the PLCs and facilitating the positive culture.

From “Employer-Employee” to “Family of Choice”: The Development of the Relationship between Philippine Worker Immigrants and Elderly Care Recipients  [PDF]
Pnina Ron
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2015.42007
Abstract: The current study adds to the pool of findings regarding experiences of female Philippine work immigrants employed in elderly caregiving in Israel, as they cope with their role as caregivers. Based on an analysis of the qualitative interviews with 27 Philippine women, three themes emerged. The first is the manner in which these caregivers perceive the treatment and care they give their elderly employers, taking into account the initial stage of the professional relationship, the various types of support, and the employer-employee interactions. The second theme deals with the manner in which these caregivers perceive their role once the relationship with the elderly care recipient is established and the employer’s needs and preferences become familiar; that is, once there is a clear caregiver-client relationship. The third theme deals with the manner in which the caregivers perceive their relationship with their elderly employers and with the employers’ family members, and the way they believe their employer and family perceive their role as caregivers. This stage of the relationship they define as “family of choice”. The combination of the three themes presents a comprehensive picture of positive change in terms of the caregivers perception of their role, and a shift in the manner in which they perceive their employers: from a “source of income” to “parent”.
The Relationship between Attachment Styles in Adulthood and Attitudes towards Filial Responsibility: A Comparison between Three Generations of Arabs and Jewish Women  [PDF]
Pnina Ron
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76077
Abstract:

Background: Care giving for an elderly parent is a universal developmental task, and in all societies is one of the women tasks; its expectations are considered norms known as filial responsibility. The aim of the study is to examine the possibility of connections between the attitudes toward filial responsibility to elderly parents and the attachment style in adulthood and age (generation) among women. Methods: The research participants were 63 Jewish and Arab university students, their mothers (N = 62) and their grandmothers (N = 63). Research instruments consisted of a self- report questionnaire, which revealed background characteristics, and measured attitudes toward filial responsibility, style of adult attachment; self-esteem; sense of mastery and, family support. Results revealed ethnicity differences as well as between-generations differences regarding normative attitudes toward filial responsibility, which may indicate a changing taking place in the Arab society’s approach concerning these attitudes. An additional finding brought to light the cross-generational differences in the relationship between the attachment style in adulthood and the attitudes regarding filial responsibility. Conclusion: It seems that in attitudes towards filial responsibility, Arab society is still traditional in terms of its approach to the institutions of clan and family mostly among the elderly Arab Muslims. All of the modern changes most likely have an effect on adults’ sense of filial responsibility, on social norms, and on familial traditions.

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