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Effect of Higher Mean Arterial Pressure with Norepinephrine on Tissue Oxygenation and Perfusion in Patients of Septic Shock  [PDF]
Sandeep Sharma, Mridula Pawar, Mohandeep Kaur, Nidhi Srivastava, Saurav Mustafi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.35076
Abstract: The current survival sepsis guideline proposes the use of vasopressors and fluid resuscitation to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 65 mmHg. Titrating catecholamine infusion to achieve higher MAP has been demonstrated to improve tissue oxygenation, microcirculation, renal function and overall outcome of the patient in some studies and literature on actual hemodynamic goals is scarce. AIM: To study the influence of two MAP on tissue oxygenation and perfusion parameters in patients of septic shock on norepinephrine infusion. SUBJECT AND MATERIALS: Forty adult patients with the diagnosis of septic shock were enrolled. In all patients norepinephrine was titrated to first stabilize the MAP at 65 ± 5 mmHg (Set I), followed by MAP of 85 ± 5 mmHg (Set II). Heart rate (HR), Central venous oxygen saturation (SCVO2), Transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (PtcO2) by TCM 400/TINA (using miniature Clark electrode), Arterial partial pressure of oxygen(PaO2), PtO2/PaO2 ratio, Urine output and Serum Base deficit were recorded in each Set after 2 hrs of stabilization. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen PtcO2 (p < 0.0001), PtO2/PaO2 (p < 0.0001), ScvO2 (p < 0.0001), urine output (p < 0.006) on increasing the MAP from 65mmHg to 85mmHg. Serum base deficit also improved (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Higher MAP with norepinephrine is associated with better perfusion, oxygenation parameters in patients with established septic shock. These findings suggest that there is improvement in tissue oxygenation parameters using escalating doses of norepinephrine to achieve higher MAP without inherent adverse effect
Analysis of Genetic Diversity among Wild and Cultivated Chickpea Genotypes Employing ISSR and RAPD Markers  [PDF]
Pramod Kumar Singh, Himanshu Sharma, Nidhi Srivastava, Sameer S. Bhagyawant
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55082
Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer airetinum L.) is an important and most preferred food legume in many parts of the world especially in the Indian sub-continent. Molecular analysis of chickpea using DNA technology has been carried out to identify the diverse genetic base of the cultivars for selected preferential introductions as efficient edible elements. A few of these genetic stocks have been documented here to tap their genetic diversity. The status shows that the level of polymorphism in this species is low. Using PCR based markers, marker assisted selection of polymorphy is one of the established techniques. Here, this procedure has been employed to expedite gene/QTL pyramiding in the chickpea. The study presented here includes analysis of 12 germplasms of chickpea. Standard CTAB method has been performed, with certain modifications, to get better intensity and resolution of DNA bands. Extracted DNA, amplified with 41 RAPD and 21 ISSR primers are thereby tested to determine genetic diversity. The presentation discusses the results of chickpea germplasm diversity on the basis of these observations.

Bayesian Prediction of the Overhaul Effect on a Repairable System with Bounded Failure Intensity
Preeti Wanti Srivastava,Nidhi Jain
International Journal of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/681210
Abstract: This paper deals with the Bayes prediction of the future failures of a deteriorating repairable mechanical system subject to minimal repairs and periodic overhauls. To model the effect of overhauls on the reliability of the system a proportional age reduction model is assumed and the 2-parameter Engelhardt-Bain process (2-EBP) is used to model the failure process between two successive overhauls. 2-EBP has an advantage over Power Law Process (PLP) models. It is found that the failure intensity of deteriorating repairable systems attains a finite bound when repeated minimal repair actions are combined with some overhauls. If such a data is analyzed through models with unbounded increasing failure intensity, such as the PLP, then pessimistic estimates of the system reliability will arise and incorrect preventive maintenance policy may be defined. On the basis of the observed data and of a number of suitable prior densities reflecting varied degrees of belief on the failure/repair process and effectiveness of overhauls, the prediction of the future failure times and the number of failures in a future time interval is found. Finally, a numerical application is used to illustrate the advantages from overhauls and sensitivity analysis of the improvement parameter carried out.
Bayesian Prediction of the Overhaul Effect on a Repairable System with Bounded Failure Intensity
Preeti Wanti Srivastava,Nidhi Jain
Journal of Quality and Reliability Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/681210
Abstract: This paper deals with the Bayes prediction of the future failures of a deteriorating repairable mechanical system subject to minimal repairs and periodic overhauls. To model the effect of overhauls on the reliability of the system a proportional age reduction model is assumed and the 2-parameter Engelhardt-Bain process (2-EBP) is used to model the failure process between two successive overhauls. 2-EBP has an advantage over Power Law Process (PLP) models. It is found that the failure intensity of deteriorating repairable systems attains a finite bound when repeated minimal repair actions are combined with some overhauls. If such a data is analyzed through models with unbounded increasing failure intensity, such as the PLP, then pessimistic estimates of the system reliability will arise and incorrect preventive maintenance policy may be defined. On the basis of the observed data and of a number of suitable prior densities reflecting varied degrees of belief on the failure/repair process and effectiveness of overhauls, the prediction of the future failure times and the number of failures in a future time interval is found. Finally, a numerical application is used to illustrate the advantages from overhauls and sensitivity analysis of the improvement parameter carried out. 1. Introduction A repairable system is a system that, after failing to perform one or more of its functions satisfactorily, can be restored to satisfactory performance. Most repairable mechanical systems are subjected to degradation phenomena with operating time, so that the failures become increasingly frequent with time. Such systems often undergo a maintenance policy. Maintenance extends system's lifetime or at least the mean time to failure, and an effective maintenance policy can reduce the frequency of failures and the undesirable consequences of such failures. Maintenance can be categorized into two classes: corrective and preventive actions. Corrective maintenance, called repair, is all actions performed to restore the system to functioning condition when it fails. Preventive maintenance is all actions performed to prevent failures when the system is operating. Corrective and preventive maintenance actions are generally classified in terms of their effect on the operating conditions of the system. Pham and Wang [1] classified them as perfect maintenance, minimal maintenance, imperfect maintenance, and worse maintenance. At one extreme is the assumption of perfect maintenance, that a system is restored to good-as-new condition after maintenance. At the other extreme is the
Development of Framework for Automatic Speech Recognition
Prof. S.Qamar Abbas,Nidhi Srivastava
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper we have proposed an automatic speech recognition framework using agents. In this we have included both audio recognition and visual recognition. The audio and visual modalities are complementary to each other and the combination of the two can improve the accuracy in affective user models. The audio features extracted are processed by audition agent. The visual processing agent takes care of the lip and face detection. Finally both these agents assist audio visual fusion agent in fusion of these modalities for automatic speech recognition.
Polymers in Drug Delivery  [PDF]
Apurva Srivastava, Tejaswita Yadav, Soumya Sharma, Anjali Nayak, Akanksha Akanksha Kumari, Nidhi Mishra
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.41009
Abstract: Polymers are being used extensively in drug delivery due to their surface and bulk properties. They are being used in drug formulations and in drug delivery devices. These drug delivery devices may be in the form of implants for controlled drug delivery. Polymers used in colloidal drug carrier systems, consisting of small particles, show great advantage in drug delivery systems because of optimized drug loading and releasing property. Polymeric nano particulate systems are available in wide variety and have established chemistry. Non toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymers are available. Some nano particulate polymeric systems possess ability to cross blood brain barrier. They offer protection against chemical degradation. Smart polymers are responsive to atmospheric stimulus like change in temperature; pressure, pH etc. thus are extremely beneficial for targeted drug delivery. Some polymeric systems conjugated with antibodies/specific biomarkers help in detecting molecular targets specifically in cancers. Surface coating with thiolated PEG, Silica-PEG improves water solubility and photo stability. Surface modification of drug carriers e.g. attachment with PEG or dextran to the lipid bilayer increases their blood circulation time. Polymer drug conjugates such as Zoladex, Lupron Depot, On Caspar PEG intron are used in treatment of prostate cancer and lymphoblastic leukemia. Polymeric Drug Delivery systems are being utilized for controlled drug delivery assuring patient compliance.
Evaluation of Trihalomethane Formation Potential Due To Anthropogenic Sources in the Ground Water of Kanpur
Nidhi Dixit Mishra,S. C. Dixit,H. C. Srivastava
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/280764
Abstract: The ground water of Jajmau(which is the hub of tanneries), Kanpur has been evaluated for trihalomethane formation potential in January and May, 2009.Bromide is absent. Chloroform is the only THM species identified in all the ground water samples. The levels of chloroform are found below the regulated WHO guideline value of 300 μgL-1.THM formation rate is very fast in first 24 h. as compared to that of the exceeding reaction time (>24 h). High TOC content is found in both the winter and summer seasons. Values of THMFP increase as the chlorine doses from 14 mg/L to 17 mg/L increased in both the seasons.
Aconitum: Need for sustainable exploitation (with special reference to Uttarakhand)
Srivastava Nidhi,Sharma Vikas,Kamal Barkha,Jadon Vikash
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Red Data Book has a long list of many endangered medicinal plants in which genus Aconitum, known as monkshood, wolfsbane, Devil′s helmet or blue rocket, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae finds a key position. There are over 250 species of Aconitum. These herbaceous perennial plants are chiefly natives of the mountainous parts of the Northern Hemisphere and are characterised by significant and valuable medicinal properties. Illegal and unscientific extraction from the wild has made the important species of this genus endangered. This review focuses on the importance and medicinal uses of the genus (on the basis of literature cited from different Books and Journals and web, visits to the sites and questionnaires), which have been documented and practiced on the basis of traditional as well as scientific knowledge. The review further presents an insight on the role of conventional and modern biotechnological methods for the conservation of the said genus, with special reference to Uttarakhand. Further, it is suggested that the policies of government agencies in coordination with the local bodies, scientists, NGOs and end-users be implemented for the sustainable conservation of Aconitum.
LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF GINGER-ENRICHED TEA
VANI GUPTA,SANDEEP KUMAR,NIDHI SRIVASTAVA,SAMEEKSHA MISHRA
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of consumption of tea with and without ginger for 30 days on Insulin resistance, Glucose level and lipid profile in obese subjects.Methods: 80 obese volunteers having having WHR > 0.85 for female, >0.90 for male and BMI >25 were randomly divided into two groups; group A (ginger tea consumption for 0-30 days); n = 40 and group B (ginger tea consumption for 30-60 days); n = 40. Total time duration of tea consumption for each batch was 60 days (30 days tea with ginger and 30 days tea without ginger). Main outcome measures were mean changes in biochemical parameters as compared with baseline.Results: After 30 days of consumption of tea with ginger, there is significant low level were observed as compared to baseline i.e. 0th day for total cholesterol (205+30 to 193+22 mg/dL, p=0.045) and LDL-C (136.6+18 to 121.8+9.8mg/dL, p=0.01) except significant increased for HDL-C (40+8 to 44+8 mg/dL, p=0.028), in Group A. Similarly significant low level were observed on 60th as compared to 30th day for total cholesterol (205+26 to 190+20 mg/dL, p=0.005) and LDL-C, (136+12.8 to 116.2+10.1mg/dL, p<0.001) except significant increased for HDL-C (39+10 to 43+7.5 mg/dL, p=0.046) in Group B. However there are no significant changes for any parameter were observed in both the groups while consuming tea without ginger for 30 days.Conclusion: Ginger has bioactive dietary compounds capable of lowering blood cholesterol, glucose levels and stimulating insulin secretion.
Influence of Pre-Sowing Treatments on in vitro Seed Germination of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall) of Uttarakhand
Nidhi Srivastava,Vikas Sharma,Anoop K. Dobriyal,Barkha Kamal
Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: In the present study in-vitro seed germination protocol using various pre-sowing treatments for Aconitum heterophyllum Wall intended for its ex-situ conservation was optimized. Temperature requirement for seed germination in this species was optimized under controlled conditions which revealed that low temperature of 15C (p<1.0%) was obligatory. Two in-vitro presowing treatments: PST-1 (pre-treated seeds kept at normal room temperature) and PST-2 (pre-treated seeds kept at 15C) were also studied. Highest seed germination was recorded with PST-2 (p<0.1%) with 0.5 mg L-1 IAA (97.17%) as compared to PST-1 (p<1.0%). As seed embryo in A. heterophyllum Wall is small, it requires low temperature to grow and also GA3 (100 and 200 M) could not improve the seed germination even at low temperature; so it may be assumed that it exhibit deep complex morphophysiological dormancy (MPD).
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