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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 88 matches for " Sreejith Rajasekharan "
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Elucidating the Interacting Domains of Chandipura Virus Nucleocapsid Protein
Kapila Kumar,Sreejith Rajasekharan,Sahil Gulati,Jyoti Rana,Reema Gabrani,Chakresh K. Jain,Amita Gupta,Vijay K. Chaudhary,Sanjay Gupta
Advances in Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/594319
Abstract: The nucleocapsid (N) protein of Chandipura virus (CHPV) plays a crucial role in viral life cycle, besides being an important structural component of the virion through proper organization of its interactions with other viral proteins. In a recent study, the authors had mapped the associations among CHPV proteins and shown that N protein interacts with four of the viral proteins: N, phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), and glycoprotein (G). The present study aimed to distinguish the regions of CHPV N protein responsible for its interactions with other viral proteins. In this direction, we have generated the structure of CHPV N protein by homology modeling using SWISS-MODEL workspace and Accelrys Discovery Studio client 2.55 and mapped the domains of N protein using PiSQRD. The interactions of N protein fragments with other proteins were determined by ZDOCK rigid-body docking method and validated by yeast two-hybrid and ELISA. The study revealed a unique binding site, comprising of amino acids 1–30 at the N terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N1) that is instrumental in its interactions with N, P, M, and G proteins. It was also observed that N2 associates with N and G proteins while N3 interacts with N, P, and M proteins. 1. Introduction Chandipura virus (CHPV) is a recently recognized emerging human pathogen [1–3] of the genus Vesiculovirus and family Rhabdoviridae [4]. The ~11?kb genome of CHPV [5] is encapsidated by nucleocapsid (N) protein and serves as a template for both replication and transcription. The transcription of the genome by viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp; L protein) produces five capped and polyadenylated mRNAs which code for five proteins nucleocapsid protein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and large protein (L) in sequential order and in decreasing amounts [6]. Interactions among these proteins are essential for functioning of key processes during virus replication and pathogenesis. However, only few details of the molecular functions of these viral proteins that orchestrate the virus life cycle are known. The N protein plays a pivotal role in virus biology by virtue of its interactions with other viral proteins. The interaction of monomeric N protein with P maintains it in the encapsidation competent soluble (active) form [7, 8]. In its active form, N protein tightly wraps the RNA genome and maintains the structural integrity along with the template function of the negative strand genome RNA. Within the virion, this encapsidated RNA (N-RNA) template is associated with the
Rajasekharan J
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1988,
A Hierarchical Framework of Barriers to Green Supply Chain Management in the Construction Sector
Sreejith Balasubramanian
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n10p15
Abstract: The research paper presents a hierarchical sustainability framework for evaluating the barriers to the adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) construction sector. A total of 32 barriers to the adoption of GSCM are identified through extensive literature review and expert interviews with academics and industry professionals. The barriers are grouped on the basis of literature and expert opinion to form 12 criteria. Since the nature of the identified criteria is complex and interdependent; an Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) technique is applied to develop a structural model. Driving and dependence power analysis (DDPA) is used to classify and identify the critical barriers. The developed sustainability framework offers a strong and efficient evaluation technique in decision making for policy makers and stakeholders by means of identifying and prioritizing the critical barriers. The barriers identified are also classified as external and internal barriers to the organization and will help policy makers to focus on specific barriers which are important to the adoption of GSCM in the UAE construction sector. The framework has the potential to be applied to other countries across industries.
Identification of Growth Promoter to Fabrication SiCp/Al2O3 Ceramic Matrix Composites Prepared by Directed Metal Oxidation of An Al Alloy  [PDF]
Malkapuram Devaiah, Thodeti Srihari, Thankappan Pillai Rajasekharan
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.1111111
Abstract: SiC particulates reinforced alumina matrix composites were fabricated using Directed Metal Oxidation (DIMOX) process. Continuous oxidation of an Al-Si-Mg-Zn alloy with different interlayers (dopents) as growth promoters, will encompasses the early heating of the alloy ingot, melting and continued heating to temperature in the narrow range of 950°C to 980°C in an atmosphere of oxygen. Varying interlayers (dopents) are incorporated to examine the growth conditions of the composite materials and to identification of suitable growth promoter. The process is extremely difficult because molten aluminum does not oxidize after prolonged duration at high temperatures due to the formation of a passivating oxide layer. It is known that the Lanxide Corporation had used a combination of dopents to cause the growth of alumina from molten metal. This growth was directed, i.e. the growth is allowed only in the required direction and restricted in the other directions. The react nature of the dopants was a trade secret. Though it is roughly known that Mg and Si in the Al melt can aid growth, additional dopents used, the temperatures at which the process was carried out, the experimental configurations that aided directed growth were not precisely known. In this paper we have evaluated the conditions in which composites can be grown in large enough sizes for evaluation application and have arrived at a procedure that enables the fabrication of large composite samples by determining the suitable growth promoter (dopant). Scanning electron microscopic, EDS analysis of the composite was found to contain a continuous network of Al2O3, which was predominantly free of grain-boundary phases, a continuous network of Al alloy. Fabrication of large enough samples was done only by the inventor company and the property measurements by the company were confirmed to those needed to enable immediate applications. Since there are a large number of variable affecting robust growth of the composite, fabrication large sized samples for measurements is a difficult task. In the present work, to identify a suitable window of parameters that enables robust growth of the composite has been attempted.
Evolution Of Neurosciences In India : Biographical Sketches Of Some Indian Neuroscientists
Rajasekharan Nair K
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 1999,
Energy effects on alloying through a re-interpretation of the parameters of Miedema
T. Rajasekharan,V. Seshubai
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: The parameters Phi and N of Miedema are quoted precise to the second decimal place and are considered very accurate after adjustment in their values to correctly predict the signs of the heats of formation of more than 500 metallic binary systems. In this paper, we argue that Phi is proportional to the electronegativity (Chi) of metallic elements and that N^(1/3) is the valence effective on a linear bond. We show that, with the above hypothesis, Chi can be derived in the absolute sense, following Gordy, as the electrostatic potential due to the effective charge of the nucleus of an atom in a metal, felt at the mid-point of a bond to the nearest atom. The exponent 1/3 has its origin in the high ligancy and resonance in metals. An excellent agreement with the hypothesis is observed for the hypoelectronic elements, while the buffer and hyperelectronic elements show interesting variations. It is argued that the unlike atom pair bond energies, which are correlated to the distribution of binary systems on the map constructed using the magnitudes of parameters del Phi and del N of Miedema, originate from the scatter in the distribution of elements in the electronegativity versus N^(1/3)/R graph. Since it is the scatter that is important, we see that the small corrections effected by Miedema et al. to the parameters Phi and N are significant in deciding the energies involved. An interpretation is provided for the energy effects involved in the alloying of metals.
Importance of the atom-pair bond in metallic alloying
T. Rajasekharan,V. Seshubai
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Rajasekharan and Girgis reported that binary systems with intermetallic compounds of a particular crystal structure form a straight line on a map using Miedema parameters. In this paper, the universality of that observation is examined. Observations from a study of 143 binary systems that crystallize in six different crystal structures at AB3 composition are discussed. Prediction of concomitant and mutually exclusive structure types in binary metallic phase diagrams, and of phase transitions among different structure types, has been demonstrated. This behavior is unexpected because Miedema parameters are isotropic in nature and structural energies are generally assumed to be small. We argue in this paper that each point on the map stands for the energy of an unlike atom-pair (A-B) bond, with the bond energy remaining nearly the same at all compositions in the phase diagram. This argument is confirmed by comparing the nearest-neighbour (A-B) bond lengths for the compounds of the structure types CaCu5 and CsCl, when concomitant with MgCu2 structure type. This fact leads to an important conclusion that one can define a bond energy for the metallic unlike-atom-pair bond as is usually done for a conventional chemical bond.
An Atom-Pair Bond Theory for the Alloying of Metals
T. Rajasekharan,V. Seshubai
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We present an Atom-Pair Bond (APB) theory for the energy of a metallic bond based on the ideas of covalent bonding proposed by Pauling. An expression is derived which accurately predicts the signs of the heats of formation of binary alloys. It also explains the characteristics of the Rajasekharan-Girgis lines and their ability to predict accurately concomitant and mutually exclusive structure types in phase diagrams. Evidence is provided to show that the charge transfer on the atom-pair bond which is central to the present theory decides the experimentally observed volume changes on alloying.
Charge transfer on the metallic atom pair bond, and the crystal structures adopted by intermetallic compounds
T. Rajasekharan,V. Seshubai
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Pauling had proposed that charge is transferred from the more electronegative atom to the less electronegative one during metallic alloying. An expression has recently been derived for the energy of the unlike atom-pair bond using that concept. In this paper, Pauling's view is further supported by showing that the electronegativity and valence differences between unlike atoms in binary metallic alloys are of the required magnitude and direction so as to bring the metallic radii ratio R_A/R_B by charge transfer to a value r_A/r_B for ideal packing in an intermetallic compound. It is also demonstrated that lattice parameters of intermetallic compounds belonging to several crystal structure types can be obtained with excellent accuracy from the length of the atom-pair bond.
On the electrical conductivity of transition metals
T. Rajasekharan,V. Seshubai
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We study the consequences of identifying the 'electron density parameter' N of Miedema et al. as the accurate valence of metallic elements. The incorporation of these as valence in Pauling's scheme for the electronic structure of transition metals, predicts, for the first time, that the electrical conductivity of transition metals would decrease in the order {\sigma}_Ag > {\sigma}_Cu > {\sigma}_Au > {\sigma}_Rh > {\sigma}_others, as is experimentally observed.
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