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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168905 matches for " Spencer E. Boyle "
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Physical activity, weight status and diet in adolescents: are children meeting the guidelines  [PDF]
Spencer E. Boyle, Georgina L. Jones, Stephen J. Walters
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210167
Abstract: Childhood obesity is on the increase and maintaining regular physical activity and consuming a healthy diet have become essential tools to combat the condition. The United Kingdom government has recommended guidelines for optimal levels of diet and activity in children. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare self-reported physical activity levels, diet, and Body Mass Indices (BMI) amongst adolescent children, aged 11-15, in the South West (SW) and North West (NW) regions of England and to see if these children were meeting the current targets for optimal levels of: physical activity; fruit/vegetable consumption; fat consumption and BMI. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of four secondary schools and 1,869 children using the self-reported Western Australian Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS) physical activity instrument and a food intake screener questionnaire, in summer and winter. We found that 25% (469/1869) 95% CI: 23% to 27%, of children engaged in 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day; 53% (995/1866) 95% CI: 51% to 56%, took 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day; while 22% (407/1861) 95% CI: 20% to 24% consumed recommended amount of fats, and 23.7% (276/1164) 95% CI: 21% to 26%, of pupils were obese or overweight as classified by their BMI. Self reported physical activity in young people regardless of area is lower than previously reported and the lack of students engaging in 60 minutes moderate to vigorous activity could have serious public health consequences. If sustained, this could lead to more overweight adults, and more ill health.
A Comparison of Children’s Fitness in the Northwest and Southwest of England  [PDF]
Spencer Earl Boyle
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.44020
Abstract: The data from this paper was gathered from a larger cross-sectional study examining children’s physical activity participation in the Northwest and the Southwest of England. The purpose of this study was to carry out a battery of health and fitness tests with children in both areas to examine possible differences in various aspects of fitness or health by area. Heart rate recovery, flexibility, body fat, hand grip strength, upper body strength, explosive strength and agility were all measured using youth fitness tests endorsed by EUROFIT and YMCA with 59 boys and 57 girls across both areas. There were no statistically significant differences in both groups of children in hand grip strength, flexibility and agility. Statistically significant differences were noted between both groups of children in explosive strength, upper body strength and measured body fat percentage. Overall the study showed mixed results that may indicate area of residence influences aspects of fitness or activity. Further study is recommended to assess whether physical activity could play a role in the associated fitness characteristics.
Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK: A qualitative study of heads of PE and heads of schools
Spencer Boyle, Georgina L Jones, Stephen J Walters
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-273
Abstract: Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes.17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum.Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools.Recent data indicate that almost one in four young people in the UK (23.7% of 11–15 year old males and 26.2% females) are now classed as obese [1]. There is much speculation about the causes of obesity in young adolescents. However, it has been reported that one of the leading contributory factors of childhood obesity is a lack of physical activity (PA) [1]. Although a common standard of the optimum level of young people's physical activity has yet to be universally agreed upon [2], the UK government (as part of its physical education school sports club links strategy), set a target in 1999 that 85% of school children should take part in two hours per week of high quality sport and physical education (PE) and a variety of new initiatives were introduced in schools to help children achieve this target by 2008 [3].Nevertheless, despite these new initiatives there is still controversy amongst physical educators and academics over whether young people are obtaining adequate levels of PE and are sufficiently physically active. For example, according to a Sp
Development and Evaluation of a Novel Interprofessional Learning Activity Addressing the Management of Phenylketonuria  [PDF]
Heather Donald, Morag C. E. McFadyen, Susanne P. Boyle
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.43028
Abstract: This new initiative across the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences at Robert Gordon University focuses around students from the Overseas Pharmacist’s Assessment Programme (OSPAP) and 3rd year Nutrition and Dietetics students working in an interprofessional setting to manage the care of individuals with Phenylketonuria (PKU). A problem based learning approach was employed which involved small group interprofessional working to solve a series of simulated case studies concerned with the management of phenylketonuria. The session was further enhanced by an expert patient narrative and the opportunity to test a series of commercially available low protein/low phenylalanine food substitutes provided by SHS-Nutricia and Vitaflo which are used in the disease management. Group evaluation of the activity was generally positive with all groups indicating that the learning objectives had been achieved in a setting which promoted collaborative interprofessional working, acquisition of knowledge pertaining to the management of PKU and a format which enabled a breadth and depth of material to be covered in a relatively short time. The contributions of the expert patient and availability of test samples enhanced the interactivity of the session and provided a meaningful insight into the real life scenario of PKU patients. Limitations of the session included the rather narrow range of healthcare professional students involved in the activity and the need for better signposting of preparatory reading material. Planned future developments of this initiative aim to involve health visiting, biomedical science and social work students to enable a more holistic approach to the health and social care issues of PKU to be considered and the inclusion of an Articulate quiz activity for student self evaluation pre event. In conclusion this initiative addressed the 6 learning objectives in an interactive manner which received positive learner feedback and the academic team has identified a clear strategy for future development.


Searching for Hydrogen in Type Ib Supernovae
Spencer James,E. Baron
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/718/2/957
Abstract: We present synthetic spectral fits of the typical Type Ib SN 1999dn and the Hydrogen Rich Ib SN 2000H using the generalized non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar atmospheres code \phx. We fit model spectra to five epochs of SN 1999dn ranging from ten days pre-maximum light to 17 days post-maximum light and the two earliest epochs of SN 2000H available, maximum light and six days post-maximum. Our goal is to investigate the possibility of hydrogen in Type Ib Supernovae (SNe Ib), specifically a feature around 6200\AA\ which has previously been attributed to high velocity H-alpha. In earlier work on SN 1999dn we found the most plausible alternative to H-alpha to be a blend of Si II and Fe II lines which can be adjusted to fit by increasing the metallicity. Our models are simple; they assume a powerlaw density profile with radius, homologous expansion, and solar compositions. The helium core is produced by burning 4H --> He in order to conserve nucleon number. For models with hydrogen the outer skin of the model consists of a shell of solar composition. The hydrogen mass of the standard solar composition shell is M_H less than about 0.001 times the mass of the sun in SN 1999dn and M_H less than about 0.2 times the mass of the sun for SN 2000H. Our models fit the observed spectra reasonably well, successfully reproducing most features including the characteristic He I absorptions. The hydrogen feature in SN 1999dn is clear, but much more pronounced in SN 2000H. We discuss a possible evolutionary scenario that accounts for the dichotomy in the hydrogen shell mass between these two supernovae.
The Personalized System of Instruction: Review and Applications to Distance Education
Lyle Grant,Robert E. Spencer
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2003,
Abstract: The present paper a) outlines the basic features of the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI); b) provides a brief history of PSI; and c) describes the application of PSI to distance education. Some common misconceptions about PSI are also addressed. PSI is presented as a helpful universally applicable set of instructional practices that are well suited to distance teaching and learning.
Modeling of Polymer Clay Nanocomposite for a Multiscale Approach
Paul E Spencer,John Sweeney
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.12.012
Abstract: The mechanical property enhancement of polymer reinforced with nano-thin clay platelets (of high aspect ratio) is associated with a high polymer-filler interfacial area per unit volume. The ideal case of fully separated (exfoliated) platelets is generally difficult to achieve in practice: a typical nanocomposite also contains multilayer stacks of intercalated platelets. Here we use numerical modelling to investigate how the platelet properties affect the overall mechanical properties. The configuration of platelets is modelled using a statistical interpretation of the Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach, in which an ensemble of "sample" heterogeneous material is generated (with periodic boundary conditions). A simple Monte Carlo algorithm is used to place non-intersecting platelets in the RVE according to a specified set of statistical distributions. The effective stiffness of the platelet-matrix system is determined by measuring the stress (using standard Finite Element analysis) produced as a result of applying a small deformation to the boundaries, and averaging over the entire statistical ensemble. In this work we determine the way in which the platelet properties (curvature, filling fraction, stiffness, aspect ratio) and the number of layers in the stack affect the overall stiffness enhancement of the nanocomposite. Thus, we bridge the gap between behaviour on the macroscopic scale with that on the scale of the nano-reinforcement, forming part of a multi-scale modelling framework.
The US Distribution of Physicians from Lower Income Countries
E. Fuller Torrey, Barbara Boyle Torrey
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033076
Abstract: Introduction Since the 1960 s, the number of international medical graduates (IMGs) in the United States has increased significantly. Given concerns regarding the effects of this loss to their countries of origin, the authors undertook a study of IMGs from lower income countries currently practicing in the United States. Methods The AMA Physician Masterfile was accessed to identify all 265,851 IMGs in active practice in the United States. These were divided by state of practice and country of origin. World Bank income classification was used to identify lower income countries. Results 128,729 IMGs were identified from 53 lower income countries, constituting 15 percent of the US active physician workforce. As a percentage of the workforce, West Virginia (29%), New Jersey (27%), and Michigan (26%) had the most IMGs from lower income countries, and Montana, Idaho, and Alaska (all less than 2%), the least. The countries with the greatest loss of physicians to the United States per 100,000 population were the Philippines, Syria, Jordan, and Haiti. Discussion The reliance of US medicine on physicians from lower income countries is beneficial to the United States both clinically and economically. However, it results in a loss of the lower income country's investment in the IMG's education. We discuss possible mechanisms to compensate the lower income countries for the medical education costs of their physicians who immigrate to the US.
Air Plasma Spray for First Aid  [PDF]
Spencer Kuo
Open Journal of Emergency Medicine (OJEM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojem.2016.43010
Abstract: Hemorrhage during trauma occurred in emergency situations is a significant challenge. It may be life threatening if it is not treated swiftly. A new device which can effectively stop bleeding to save life of injured person, especially in battlefield situations and accidents, is presented. A plasma generator is designed to generate a low temperature air plasma spray for treating wounds. The spectral spike at 777.4 nm in the emission spectrum of the plasma plume and the spatial distribution of this emission line’s spectral intensity indicate that abundant atomic oxygen is generated and sprays out of the generator by about 25 mm. Atomic oxygen carried by the plasma spray can quickly activate the cascading of coagulation processes and works as dry disinfectant to advance healing. Tests on blood droplets reveal the strong dependence of blood clotting on the amount of atomic oxygen applied in the plasma treatment, which is maneuvered by increasing the plasma treatment time or decreasing the exposure distance; in both approaches, the degree of blood clotting increases. Treated smeared blood samples show that an increase of the erythrocyte concentration and a drastic decrease of the platelet count are also correlated to the increase of atomic oxygen dose applied in the plasma treatment. The results reveal the mechanisms of air plasma blood coagulation and wound healing. As animal models, pigs were used in the tests of stopping wound bleeding from a cross cut in the ham area, from a hole in an ear’s saphenous vein, and from cuts to arteries in an ear and in a real leg, all stopped swiftly. Moreover, both artery cuts were secure to remove tourniquet; downgrade of tourniquet necessary wound in under 2 minutes was demonstrated. The healing progress of cross cut wounds was observed. The healing time was shortened to about half. This battery power plasma spray can be carried to or placed at anywhere available for first aid applications. It stops bleeding swiftly to save life, and also downgrades tourniquet necessary wound to extend the golden period of saving the remaining part below tourniquet.
On Hemostasis of Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma  [PDF]
Spencer Kuo
Open Journal of Emergency Medicine (OJEM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojem.2018.64012
Abstract: The efficacy and mechanism of a cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma (CAAP), which carries abundant atomic oxygen (OI), on blood coagulation are studied. The tests on sodium citrate mixed blood-droplet samples show that 1) The heat delivered by the CAAP has no impact on the observed clot formation, 2) Plasma effluent activates platelets to promote coagulation state and cascade, and 3) The degree of clotting increases with the OI flux delivered by the CAAP. The full clotting time is shortened from about 25 minutes of the natural clotting time to about 16 s of the CAAP treatment time. The tests on smeared blood samples show that the reduction of the platelet count and the increase of RBC count are proportional to the applied OI flux. In vivo tests, using swine as nimal model, swift hemostasis of large and deep cut wounds on the back by the CAAP treatment was demonstrated. A cut artery was sealed completely with 25 s treatment. The pressure applied by a finger on the cut artery could be removed immediately after the treatment and there was no re-bleed. Based on the in vitro test results and the animal model trials, CAAP coagulation mechanism is presented.
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