Abstract:
Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving tight glycemic control and improving clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes. While insulin therapy is required from the onset of diagnosis in type 1 disease, its role in type 2 diabetes requires consideration as to when to initiate and advance therapy. In this article, we review a case study that unfolds over 5 years and discuss the therapeutic decision points, initiation and advancement of insulin regimens, and analyze new data regarding the advantages and disadvantages of tight management of glucose levels.

Abstract:
In the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, gene expression of the same set of samples is measured multiple times on different microarray platforms. There are two main advantages to combining these measurements. First, we have the opportunity to obtain a more precise and accurate estimate of expression levels than using the individual platforms alone. Second, the combined measure simplifies downstream analysis by eliminating the need to work with three sets of expression measures and to consolidate results from the three platforms.

Abstract:
The United States and India have much in common (besides Indians), enough in fact to constitute a comprehensive alliance. Both countries are former British colonies. Both use the English language: unofficially but more in the US; and, officially but less in India. Both are complimentarily large, the US in terms of area and India in terms of population. The people of India are however younger and poorer. Both countries have long coastlines and together they are adjacent the major oceans of the world: Pacific, Artic, and Atlantic including the Gulf of Mexico; and, Indian including the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The United States of America and the Republic of India have now converged as welfare states. The US was once more capitalistic whereas India was once more socialistic. Both countries use Affirmative Action: for minorities and women in the US; and, for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes in India. Both governments are secular but the US is predominately Christian whereas India is predominately Hindu. Both countries face the threat of Islamic terrorism particularly the US vis-à-vis Afghanistan and India vis-à-vis Pakistan. And both the United States and India must contend with the new super-state, China.

Abstract:
Obesity has emerged as a global health issue that is associated with wide spectrum of disorders, including coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is one of the most common vascular disorders in the United States and Europe and is associated with significant mortality. Although the association between obesity and VTE appears to be moderate, obesity can interact with other environmental or genetic factors and pose a significantly greater risk of VTE among individuals who are obese and who are exposed simultaneously to several other risk factors for VTE. Therefore, identification of potential interactions between obesity and certain VTE risk factors might offer some critical points for VTE interventions and thus minimize VTE morbidity and mortality among patients who are obese. However, current obesity measurements have limitations and can introduce contradictory results in the outcome of obesity. To overcome these limitations, this review proposes several future directions and suggests some avenues for prevention of VTE associated with obesity as well.

Abstract:
A computational pipeline has been designed to continuously update a local image database, with limited clinical information, from an NIH repository. Each image is partitioned into blocks, where each cell in the block is characterized through a multidimensional representation (e.g., nuclear size, cellularity). A subset of morphometric indices, representing potential underlying biological processes, can then be selected for subtyping and genomic association. Simultaneously, these subtypes can also be predictive of the outcome as a result of clinical treatments. Using the cellularity index and nuclear size, the computational pipeline has revealed five subtypes, and one subtype, corresponding to the extreme high cellularity, has shown to be a predictor of survival as a result of a more aggressive therapeutic regime. Further association of this subtype with the corresponding gene expression data has identified enrichment of (i) the immune response and AP-1 signaling pathways, and (ii) IFNG, TGFB1, PKC, Cytokine, and MAPK14 hubs.While subtyping is often performed with genome-wide molecular data, we have shown that it can also be applied to categorizing histology sections. Accordingly, we have identified a subtype that is a predictor of the outcome as a result of a therapeutic regime. Computed representation has become publicly available through our Web site.While molecular characterization provides average genome-wide profiling for each biopsy, it fails to reveal inherent heterogeneity that is only visible through tissue histology. Molecular characterization has the advantage of a standardized array-based measurement compared to the genome and other well curated databases. On the other hand, histology sections do not provide standardized measurements, yet they are rich in content and continue to be the gold standard for the assessment of tissue neoplasm. Because of inter- and intra- observer variations [1] and the absence of quantitative representation, some studies have

Abstract:
Sacerdote [Sa] has shown that the non-Abelian free groups satisfy precisely the same universal-existential sentences Th(F$_2$)$\cap \forall \exists $ in a first-order language L$_o$ appropriate for group theory. It is shown that in every model of Th(F$_2$)$\cap \forall \exists $ the maximal Abelian subgroups are elementarily equivalent to locally cyclic groups (necessarily nontrivial and torsion free). Two classes of groups are interpolated between the non-Abelian locally free groups and Remeslennikov's $\exists $-free groups. These classes are the \textbf{almost locally free groups} and the \textbf{quasi-locally free groups}. In particular, the almost locally free% \textbf{\ }groups are the models of Th(F$_2$)$\cap \forall \exists $ while the quasi-locally free groups are the $\exists $-free groups with maximal Abelian subgroups elemenatarily equivalent to locally cyclic groups (necessarily nontrivial and torsion free). Two principal open questions at opposite ends of a spectrum are: (1.) Is every finitely generated almost locally free group free? (2.) Is every quasi-locally free group almost locally free? Examples abound of finitely generated quasi-locally free groups containing nontrivial torsion in their Abelianizations. The question of whether or not almost locally free groups have torsion free Abelianization is related to a bound in a free group on the number of factors needed to express certain elements of the derived group as a product of commutators.

Abstract:
The inability of standard non-interacting cold dark matter (CDM) to account for the small scale structure of individual galaxies has led to the suggestion that the dark matter may undergo elastic and/or inelastic scattering. We simulate the evolution of an isolated dark matter halo which undergoes both scattering and annihilation. Annihilations produce a core that grows with time due to adiabatic expansion of the core as the relativistic annihilation products flow out of the core, lessening the binding energy. An effective annihilation cross section per unit mass equal to $>.03 cm^2 g^{-1} (100 km s^{-1}/v$) with a scattering cross section per unit mass of .6 cm g$^{-1}$ produces a 3 kpc core in a 10$^{10}$ M$_{\sun}$ halo that persists for 100 dynamical times. The same cross section leads to a core of only 120 pc in a rich cluster. In addition to creating to cores, annihilation should erase structure on scales below $\sim 3\times10^8$ M$_{\sun}$. Annihilating dark matter provides a mechanism for solving some of the problems of non-interacting CDM, at the expense of introducing a contrived particle physics model.

Abstract:
Around 1945, Alfred Tarski proposed several questions concerning the
elementary theory of non-abelian free groups. These remained open for 60 years
until they were proved by O. Kharlampovich and A. Myasnikov and independently
by Z. Sela. The proofs, by both sets of authors, were monumental and involved
the development of several new areas of infinite group theory. In this paper we
explain precisely the Tarski problems and what has been actually proved. We
then discuss the history of the solution as
well as the components of the proof. We then provide the basic strategy
for the proof. We finish this paper with a brief discussion of elementary free
groups.

Abstract:
The Tarski theorems, proved by Myasnikov and Kharlampovich and inde-pendently by Sela say that all nonabelian free groups satisfy the same first-order or elementary theory. Kharlampovich and Myasnikov also prove that the elementary theory of free groups is decidable. For a group ring they have proved that the first-order theory (in the language of ring theory) is not decidable and have studied equations over group rings, especially for torsion-free hyperbolic groups. In this note we examine and survey extensions of Tarksi-like results to the collection of group rings and examine relationships between the universal and elementary theories of the corresponding groups and rings and the corresponding universal theory of the formed group ring. To accomplish this we introduce different first-order languages with equality whose model classes are respectively groups, rings and group rings. We prove that if R[G] is elementarily equivalent to S[H] then simultaneously the group G is elementarily equivalent to the group H and the ring R is elementarily equivalent to the ring S with respect to the appropriate languages. Further if G is universally equivalent to a nonabelian free group F and R is universally equivalent to the integers Z then R[G] is universally equivalent to Z[F] again with respect to an ap-propriate language.