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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223248 matches for " Souza Elza Maria de "
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Evaluation methods in health promotion programmes: the description of a triangulation in Brazil
Souza,Elza Maria de;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232010000500026
Abstract: evaluation is a key word in any health promotion programme. however, it is a challenge to choose the most appropriate method of evaluation. the purpose of this paper was to describe a triangulated methodology developed to evaluate a health promotion intervention based on intergenerational activities and to describe the theoretical framework, which guided the study. from february to december 2002 a triangulation involving a community controlled trial, focus groups technique and observation process was developed in ceilandia, federal district of brazil. samples of 253 students aged 12 to 18 years old from a secondary school and 266 elders aged 60 and over from the local area were randomly allocated to control and experimental groups. over four months, 111 students and 32 elders had weekly meetings at school to share their life histories. before and after the intervention, a questionnaire was administered to control and experimental groups including the outcome variables. although the study had some limitations, it was valuable in showing for the first time that this method can be used in interventions of this kind and also to show the importance of developing a theoretical framework to understand possible mechanism of interactions in intergenerational interventions.
Intergenerational integration, social capital and health: a theoretical framework and results from a qualitative study
Souza,Elza Maria de;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232011000300010
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to report results from a qualitative evaluation of a school based intergenerational intervention and also to derive a theoretical framework to explain the changes of attitudes in an intervention of this kind. this is a qualitative evaluation of an intervention where 32 elders from the neighbouring area of a secondary school of ceilandia, distrito federal (df) of brazil shared their memories with the 111 students during four months. after the intervention, adolescents and elders took part in 14 focus group discussions where they evaluated the effect of the activities in some aspect of their lives. the intervention had a positive impact in the participants' perceptions of family relationships, health status and solidarity. however, it did not improve feelings of trust in others. the results also suggested other possible dimensions of social capital for these age groups such as mutual respected and perception of being valued by others. although the study had some limitations, it showed the possible mechanisms of psychosocial changes involved in interventions of this kind which have not been investigated.
Intergenerational interaction in health promotion: a qualitative study in Brazil
Souza,Elza Maria de;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102003000400011
Abstract: objective: in 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of taguatinga, brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. the purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. methods: from november 1999 to april 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. results: the main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. for both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. conclusions: it seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. these results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. however, further work is needed to support these findings.
Intergenerational interaction in health promotion: a qualitative study in Brazil
Souza Elza Maria de
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. METHODS: From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. Using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. RESULTS: The main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. Participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. For both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. These results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. However, further work is needed to support these findings.
Reminiscence process: a means of intergenerational interaction; an alternative way of health promotion O processo de reminiscências: um meio de integrar gera es; uma alternativa de promover saúde
Elza Maria de Souza
Semina : Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde , 2003,
Abstract: Brazil is now witnessing a rapid ageing of the population process at the same time that the proportion of young people in the population is still high. These age groups are usually considered unproductive and consumers of resources. However, both, young and elderly people can give an enormous contribution to society through intergenerational activities, still little explored in the country. In 1998 an intergenerational project was initiated in Ceilandia, situated in the Federal District of Brasília, as an extension of a pilot programme previously initiated in the city of in the same region. The project aimed to promote the well being of elders, children and adolescents, using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the project according to the participants’ point of view and to enhance the contribution they could give for the individual and the community well-being From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative research project using focus groups technique was conducted. Following a discussion guide, 13 groups of students, ranging in age from 8 to 13 years old, 3 groups of elders of 60 years old or over, and one group of teachers were interviewed so as to collect data related to the intergenerational interaction programme developed in Ceilandia, Federal District, Brazil. The main findings suggested a change in attitude of students and teachers toward old age and elderly people. Participating elders reported improvement in their health condition. For all participants the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. It seems that the reminiscence intergenerational activities contribute to building mutual trust and solidarity between generations. These results seem to indicate that this is an alternative way to invest in health and in the well-being of young and elderly people. However, further work is needed to support these findings. O Brasil está evidenciando um rápido aumento da popula o idosa, porém o número de jovens na popula o ainda continua elevado. Esses dois grupos etários s o, em geral, considerados improdutivos e consumidores de recursos. No entanto, jovens e idosos podem dar uma imensa contribui o à sociedade por meio de atividades de integra o intergeracional, pouco exploradas no país. Em 1998 foi iniciado um projeto de integra o entre gera es na Cidade de Ceilandia, Distrito Federal. As atividades tinham o propósito de promover o bem estar dos idosos, crian as e adolescentes, usando-se o processo de reminiscências como estratégia de integra o. A finalidade deste estu
Promo??o da saúde, epidemiologia social e capital social: inter-rela??es e perspectivas para a saúde pública
Souza, Elza Maria de;Grundy, Emily;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000500030
Abstract: the idea of health promotion predates the use of the actual term. however, the incorporation of this idea and the practice of health promotion were influenced by the canadian health reform movement, which echoed the voices of many others who were concerned with the influence of the physical and social environment on health. this provided the basis for the world health organization to launch a series of conferences beginning with the alma ata conference in 1977 and followed by the ottawa conference, from which resulted the first international document on health promotion, known as the ottawa charter. although health promotion has been the subject of a wide range of studies, the concept is still not well understood and its explicit practice is limited. health conferences have been important for keeping the notion of equity in health alive, while the gap between the rhetoric of these conferences and practice remains to be bridged. however, the rise of social epidemiology and the development of the concept of social capital for health could bring new insights into traditional epidemiology in order to narrow this gap. the purpose of this paper is to elucidate these concepts and to describe the roles they play in public health in order to stimulate further debate.
Promo o da saúde, epidemiologia social e capital social: inter-rela es e perspectivas para a saúde pública
Souza Elza Maria de,Grundy Emily
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004,
Abstract: A idéia de promover saúde antecede o uso explícito do termo. No entanto, a incorpora o dessa idéia e da prática no campo da saúde pública foi influenciado especialmente pela reforma de saúde iniciada no Canadá, em 1974, a qual refletiu os anseios de muitos outros preocupados com influência do meio físico e social na saúde. Essa reforma serviu de base para o lan amento de várias conferências desencadeados pela Organiza o Mundial da Saúde, come ando pela de Alma Ata em 1977, e seguida pela Conferência de Ottawa, da qual resultou o primeiro documento internacional em promo o de saúde: a Carta de Ottawa. Embora promo o da saúde esteja presente em uma grande e variada literatura, seu conceito ainda n o é bem entendido e sua prática dificultada. Parece que a importancia dessas conferências tem servido para n o deixar fenecer a idéia de eqüidade em saúde, uma vez que os esfor os para reduzir a distancia entre retórica e prática continuam longe de ser alcan ados. Entretanto, o crescimento da epidemiologia social associado ao conceito de capital social para saúde podem complementar os preceitos da epidemiologia tradicional e, conseqüentemente, contribuir para a efetiva o do modelo estruturalista para a promo o da saúde. O propósito desse artigo é elucidar esses conceitos e descrever o papel que eles desempenham no campo da saúde pública a fim de estimular debates futuros.
Desigualdade social, delinquencia e depress?o: um estudo com adolescentes em conflito com a lei
Souza,Elza Maria de; Silva-Abr?o,Fernanda Pires da; Oliveira-Almeida,Janayana;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642011000100002
Abstract: objective evaluating self-perception regarding health status in adolescents released on parole and observing the attitudes of professionals, parents or guardians and the adolescents themselves. methods this was quali-quantitative research lasting from february to july 2006 which included a cross-sectional and observational study using a sample of 51 adolescents in conflict with the law who had been released on parole and who were attending a social development centre in ceilandia (sdcc), distrito federal, brazil. adolescents aged 14 to 19 completed self-administered questionnaires covering sociodemographic and health status-related variables. process observation was also conducted so as to obtain qualitative information concerned with the relationship between adolescents and the professionals in charge to provide socio-educational measures in the aforementioned centre. results it was found that 78.4 % of the interviewees mentioned good or very good health status; however, 76.6 % of the sample mentioned at least one health problem. becoming easily irritated (anger) was the most referred to health problem, followed by sleeping problems (19.6 %), poor concentration (13.7 %) and allergy (13.7 %). observation suggested that adolescents and parents had a poor relationship with the professionals in charge of caring for them. conclusion the results suggested a high prevalence for symptoms of depression. easy irritability may have been related to delinquency in the sample; however, such association was not investigated and deserves future research to develop appropriate public policy in brazil and other latin-american countries as violence becomes a public health problem in the region.
Partial purification and characterization of xylanase produced by Penicillium expansum
Querido, André Luiz de Souza;Coelho, Jorge Luiz Cavalcante;Araújo, Elza Fernandes de;Chaves-Alves, Virgínia Maria;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132006000400016
Abstract: an extracellular xylanase was found to be the major protein in the filtrate culture of penicillium expansum when grown on 0.3 % wheat bran, which showed no xylanase multiplicity. the enzime was partial purified by.ammonium sulfate fractioning, molecular exclusion chromatography, ultrafiltration and anion exchange chromatography. the protein eluation profile showed only one form of xylanase that was partially characterized. the activity of purified xylanase was optimal at ph 5.5 and 40 oc. the enzyme was stable at ph between 5.5 and 6.5 and temperatures between 20-40 oc. the enzyme showed a km of 3.03 mm and vmax of 0.027 mmol min-1 mg -1 of protein. the enzymatic activity was increased 31 % by mg2+ and 28 % by al3+.
Incidência de tuberculose e taxa de cura, Brasil, 2000 a 2004
Bierrenbach,Ana Luiza; Gomes,Adriana Bacelar Ferreira; Noronha,Elza Ferreira; Souza,Maria de Fátima Marinho de;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102007000800005
Abstract: objective: to describe the geographical distribution of tuberculosis incidence rates based on a set of epidemiological and operational indicators from information system database. methods: data from the sistema de informa??o de agravos de notifica??o (brazilian information system for tuberculosis notification) were collected after removal of improper repeat records and record linkage. tuberculosis incidence rates were estimated according to geographical unit, age group, sex, clinical manifestation and treatment schedule and standardized for population age group distribution based on 2000 population census. results: in 2004, in brazil, tuberculosis incidence rate was 41 per 100,000 inhabitants and 74,540 new cases were notified. of these, 52.8% were pulmonary tuberculosis with positive bacilloscopy, 24.1% were under supervised treatment, 63.5% were from state capitals or metropolitan areas, and 54.9% were cured cases (complete treatment). after records with missing outcome data were excluded, cure rates were 72.4% for new cases, 47% for new hiv-positive cases, 64.9% for relapses, 64.5% for transfers in/out, and 40% for returns after default. cure rate for new cases under supervised treatment was 77.1%. a higher proportion of records with missing outcome information was seen in recent years. conclusions: different incidence rates and treatment outcomes were found in different brazilian states. to reach the 85% cure goal for new cases and to increase cure in hiv-positive and defaults cases additional efforts are needed by the brazilian national tuberculosis program, including scaling up the directly observed therapy strategy.
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