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Economies of Scale in Local Government: General Government Spending  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.43034
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether larger or smaller municipalities are more efficient in their levels of overhead costs. The operative measure is per capita annual costs for these services. In addition, the issue of market structure as a factor in these costs is also to be studied. It is not for the purpose of considering costs for specific services but rather the general overhead items that are required of all local governments. The method of study will be to use the cities and towns of New York State over a number of years. This will ensure that the study group is relatively homogeneous over applicable state laws as well as giving a wide variation in the population levels studied. The per capita expenditures will be regressed against population and market power variables using several equation forms. The results will be tested for significance in scale effects and market power effects. Optimal population sizes will be calculated where possible. The outline of the paper is as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) Background issues, 3) The study design, 4) Data, 5) Results, and 6) Conclusions.
Are There Economies of Scale in Highway Maintenance? What about Costs Due to Market Power?  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2014.62010

The object of this paper is to determine whether there are economies or diseconomies of scale in highway maintenance and whether higher concentration levels/greater market power across the governments involved in highway maintenance results in higher or lower cost levels. The data used come from New York State municipalities. New York is divided into Towns and Cities that added together give the total land area for the State. There are also Villages that are located in one or more Towns. All of these government entities may own and manage/maintain highways. The results are that 1) there are significantly U-shaped average cost curves, but the differences in average costs between communities with lower numbers or higher numbers of lane miles than the most efficient are not very great and 2) there are both substantial and significant increases in average costs when market power is greater. Thus, making the case for mergers of communities is more difficult and such mergers would be more problematic.

The Anti-Science of Climate Change Advocates  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2016.82003
Abstract: I do not know whether anthropogenic climate change is occurring. However, I know that I do not know. There are numerous others who also do not know whether anthropogenic climate change is occurring. However, they appear not to know that they do not know. Worse, they are asserting that they do know. In order to be able to make valid decisions in respect of the issue, the science will have to be dramatically improved. This paper is written with the aim of promoting such scientific improvement, particularly in defining the concept of climate change. It also includes a way of testing some of the most important claims of climate alarmists without the necessity of actually defining climate change, along with examples of the appropriate tests (which all give negative results).
The Use of Police as Robbers for the Government and the Social Harm Resulting from That Use  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2018.102003
Abstract: The object of this essay is to look at the use of civil asset forfeiture (CAF) in the US and to show how CAF acts to damage relations among income and racial groups in the US society. Prior papers by others have shown the ways that CAF is constitutionally suspect and have developed arguments for its injustice. I agree with those but want to add the adverse effect on society to the other problems that contraindicate its use. This paper is written to show what social problems are likely and argue that the price paid is too much for any benefits derived.
A Model of Progressive Employee Compensation and Superstardom  [PDF]
Susan Hamlen, William Hamlen, Lawrence Southwick
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.33A001

This paper identifies the condition leading to a progressive salary situation wherein the elasticity of compensation with respect to ability is greater than unity, i.e., a small percentage advantage in ability results in a disproportional increase in compensation. This analysis also helps explain the “superstar phenomenon” made famous by Rosen (1981). Two assumptions are made. The first is that there is a generalized Cobb-Douglas type of production function wherein different hierarchies of employees of different abilities are viewed as distinct inputs. The second is that the distribution of ability is bell-shaped or approximately normally distributed, and can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. The model is applied using average outgoing salaries of MBA students from different universities compared to their average test scores.

兽类学报 , 1984,
Abstract: ?香港“新界”面积近800平方公里,东西长70公里,南北宽40公里。地势变化从低洼的稻田到覆盖森林的山区升高约1000米。除去香港人的居民区和农业区外,近100平方公里是森林,在陡峭的山坡和水湾,主要是保留林。
兽类学报 , 1984,
Abstract: ?thenewterritoriesofhongkongconsistofapproximately800km2,withaneast-westextentof70kmandanorth-southextentof40km.topographyvariesfromlowlandcoastalricepaddiestoforestedmountainsnearly1000minelevation.despitethehighhumanpopulationofhongkongandintensiveagriculture,approximately100km2areforested,primarilyinreserveforests,onsteephillsides,andaroundwaterreservoirs.
The Brazilian electronic theses and dissertations digital library: providing open access for scholarly information
Southwick, Sílvia Barcellos;
Ciência da Informa??o , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-19652006000200011
Abstract: this paper describes a project led by the instituto brasileiro de informa??es em ciência e tecnologia (ibict), a government institution, to build a national digital library for electronic theses and dissertations - bibliteca digital de teses e disserta??es (bdtd). the project has been a collaborative effort among ibict, universities and other research centers in brazil. the developers adopted a system architecture based on the open archives initiative (oai) in which universities and research centers act as data providers and ibict as a service provider. a brazilian metadata standard for electronic theses and dissertations was developed for the digital library. a toolkit including open source package was also developed by ibict to be distributed to potential data providers. bdtd has been integrated with the international initiative: the networked digital library of thesis and dissertation (ndltd). discussions in the paper address various issues related to project design, development and management as well as the role played by ibict. conclusions highlight some important lessons learned to date and challenges for the future in expanding the bdtd project.
The Lucas Numbers and other Gibonacci Sequences mod $m$
Jeremiah T. Southwick
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We study Gibonacci sequences mod $m$, giving special attention to the Lucas numbers. It is known which $m$ have the property that the Fibonacci sequence contains all residues mod $m$. When $m$ has this property, we say that the Fibonacci sequence is complete mod $m$. We extend this work to all Gibonacci sequences, concluding by determining the set of $m$ in which a generic Gibonacci sequence containing the relatively prime consecutive terms $a, b$ is complete mod $m$.
Maternal and congenital syphilis in Bolivia, 1996: prevalence and risk factors
Southwick Karen L.,Blanco Stanley,Santander Ana,Estenssoro Miguel
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out in seven maternity hospitals to determine the prevalence of maternal syphilis at the time of delivery and the associated risk factors, to conduct a pilot project of rapid syphilis testing in hospital laboratories, to assure the quality of syphilis testing, and to determine the rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to women with syphilis at the time of delivery - all of which would provide baseline data for a national prevention programme in Bolivia. METHODS: All women delivering either live-born or stillborn infants in the seven participating hospitals in and around La Paz, El Alto, and Cochabamba between June and November 1996 were eligible for enrolment in the study. FINDINGS: A total of 61 out of 1428 mothers (4.3%) of live-born infants and 11 out of 43 mothers (26%) of stillborn infants were found to have syphilis at delivery. Multivariate analysis showed that women with live-born infants who had less than secondary-level education, who did not watch television during the week before delivery (this was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status), who had a previous history of syphilis, or who had more than one partner during the pregnancy were at increased risk of syphilis. While 76% of the study population had received prenatal care, only 17% had syphilis testing carried out during the pregnancy; 91% of serum samples that were reactive to rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were also reactive to fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) testing. There was 96% agreement between the results from local hospital laboratories and national reference laboratories in their testing of RPR reactivity of serum samples. Congenital syphilis infection was confirmed by laboratory tests in 15% of 66 infants born to women with positive RPR and FTA-ABS testing. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a congenital syphilis prevention programme in Bolivia could substantially reduce adverse infant outcomes due to this disease.
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