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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17 matches for " Soupramanien Sivagnanam "
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Potential therapeutic agents in the management of organophosphorus poisoning
Soupramanien Sivagnanam
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1500
Abstract: Insect damage costs the world loses approximately 6 billion pounds sterling every year. Use of pesticides has increased food production in parallel with population growth in many parts of the world. Many insect-borne diseases have been eliminated or controlled by the use of insecticides. Organophosphorus compounds are widely used as insecticides and as agents of chemical warfare. According to the World Health Organization [2], 1 million serious accidental and 2 million suicidal poisonings with insecticides occur worldwide every year, and of these approximately 200,000 die, mostly in developing countries.Atropine and oximes are traditionally used in the management of such poisonings but they have failed to reduce the attendant mortality and morbidity. Some agents have been found to reduce the toxicity of organophosphorus compounds in animal experiments, and they have potential as therapeutic agents in the management of organophosphorus poisoning. These agents are magnesium, clonidine and fluoride.Kiss and Fazekas [3] reported control of premature ventricular contractions with intravenous magnesium. Magnesium was considered to counteract the direct toxic inhibitory action of organophosphorus compounds on sodium—potassium ATPase. It also inhibits acetylcholine release [4]. Singh and coworkers [5] found that intravenous magnesium reversed the neuro-electrophysiological effect of organophosphorus poisoning.Pretreatment of mice with clonidine (0.1—1 mg/kg) resulted in protection against toxic manifestations of soman — an organophosphorus compound [6]. Increased survival rates, reduction in centrally mediated symptoms such as tremor and straub tail, and reduction in excessive salivation were noted. The protective effects of clonidine are probably due to blockade of acetylcholine release and postmuscarinic receptors, together with transient inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Thus, clonidine may prove useful in the management of organophosphorus poisoning.Pretreatment of mi
Red man syndrome
Soupramanien Sivagnanam, Dirk Deleu
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1871
Abstract: The incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients varies between 5 and 15% [1]. Nosocomial infection can lead to complications in 25–33% of those patients admitted to intensive care units. Vancomycin is often used in intensive care units. It is the drug of choice for the treatment of infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vancomycin is an alternative drug for serious staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including endocarditis, when allergy precludes the use of penicillins and cephalosporins.Vancomycin can cause two types of hypersensitivity reactions, the red man syndrome and anaphylaxis [2]. Red man syndrome is an infusion-related reaction peculiar to vancomycin [3]. It typically consists of pruritus, an erythematous rash that involves the face, neck, and upper torso. Less frequently, hypotension and angioedema can occur. Patients commonly complain of diffuse burning and itching and of generalized discomfort. They can rapidly become dizzy and agitated, and can develop headache, chills, fever, and paresthesia around the mouth. In severe cases, patients complain of chest pain and dyspnea. In many patients, the syndrome is a mild, evanescent pruritus at the end of the infusion that goes unreported.Signs of red man syndrome would appear about 4–10 min after an infusion started or may begin soon after its completion. It is often associated with rapid (<1 hour) infusion of the first dose of vancomycin. The reaction may not be of the same severity with successive exposures, but it can occur for the first time after several doses or with a slow infusion [4]. Delayed reactions at or near the end of a 90 or 120 min infusion have been seen in patients who had been on vancomycin therapy for longer than 7 days without prior incident [5]. Most of the hospital protocols require vancomycin to be infused over 60 min, as a minimum [5,6]. Sporadic reports of red man synd
C. Sivagnanam
International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications , 2012,
Abstract: In a graph G, a vertex dominates itself and its neighbours. A subset S of V is called a dominating set in G if every vertex in V is dominated by at least one vertex in S. The domination number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set. A set is called a double dominating set of a graph G if every vertex in V is dominated by at least two vertices in S. The minimum cardinality of a double dominating set is called double domination number of G and is denoted by dd(G). The connectivity of a connected graph G is the minimum number of vertices whose removal results in a disconnected or trivial graph. In this paper we find an upper bound for the sum of the double domination number and connectivity of a graph and characterize the corresponding extremal graphs.
Neighbourhood total domination in graphs
S. Arumugam,C. Sivagnanam
Opuscula Mathematica , 2011,
Abstract: Let G = (V;E) be a graph without isolated vertices. A dominating set S of G is called a neighbourhood total dominating set (ntd-set) if the induced subgraph has no isolated vertices. The minimum cardinality of a ntd-set of G is called the neighbourhood total domination number of G and is denoted by $gamma _{nt}(G)$. The maximum order of a partition of V into ntd-sets is called the neighbourhood total domatic number of G and is denoted by $d_{nt}(G)$. In this paper we initiate a study of these parameters.
Mycoremediation of Endosulfan and Its Metabolites in Aqueous Medium and Soil by Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9
Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077170
Abstract: Microbial degradation offers an efficient and ecofriendly approach to remove toxicants from the contaminated environments. Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 were capable of degrading endosulfan and their metabolites which were isolated through enrichment technique. Both the strains were able to withstand an exposure of 1300 mg/L and showed luxuriant growth at 1000 mg/L of endosulfan. The change in pH in the culture broth was from 6.8 to 3.4 and 3.8 during growth kinetic studies of JAS6 and JAS9 strains, respectively upon biological degradation of endosulfan. The degradation of endosulfan by JAS6 and JAS9 strains were examined by HPLC. The biodegradation rate constant (k) and the initial concentration were reduced by 50% (DT50) which was determined by first and pseudo first order kinetic models. In the present investigation it has been revealed that Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 possessing endosulfan degrading capability are being reported for the first time. These findings confirm the degradation of endosulfan by JAS6 and JAS9 strains which were accompanied by significant reduction in the toxicity and could be used as remedial measure in contaminated environments.
Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha and Oxidative Stress in the Breath Condensate of Those with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  [PDF]
Enoch Chan, Thevaki Sivagnanam, Qi Zhang, Craig R. Lewis, Paul S. Thomas
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.324059
Abstract: Background and Aims: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and is associated with the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), subsequent cellular apoptosis and the generation of oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a non-invasive method for sampling biofluids from the lower respiratory tract. This study aimed to evaluate possible biomarkers of lung cancer by measuring the levels of TNF-α and the oxidation of ascorbic acid in EBC. Patients with lung cancer were enrolled into the study prior to treatment, during treatment and post-treatment, and results compared with an age-matched control population. Material and Methods: Patients with Stage II-IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were recruited prior to and at stages of their treatment. EBC levels of TNF-α, and rate of ascorbic acid oxidation were measured. Results: A total of 19 patients with NSCLC (mean age 71.37 ± 7.77 yrs) and 25 age-matched control subjects were enrolled. Levels of EBC TNF-α were elevated in the EBC of patients with lung cancer compared with control subjects (1.02 ± 0.07 pg/ml vs. 0.51 ± 0.06 pg/ml, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the rate of ascorbic acid oxidation was significantly greater in the EBC of patients with lung cancer compared with control subjects (2.20% [0.4 – 11.0] vs. 1.00% [0.1 – 8.5], p = 0.0244). Conclusion: TNF-α and the rate of ascorbic acid oxidation was elevated in the EBC of patients with lung cancer regardless of treatment. Longitudinal studies in a larger population are required to evaluate these markers for the effect of treatment and prognosis.
Neighborhood connected edge domination in graphs
Kulandaivel M.P.,C. Sivagnanam,P. Selvaraju
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.43.2012.69-80
Abstract: Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph. An edge dominating set X of G is called a neighborhood connected edge dominating set (nced-set) if the edge induced subgraph < N(X) > is connected. The minimum cardinality of a nced-set of G is called the neighborhood connected edge domination number of G and is denoted by. In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.
Neighborhood connected perfect domination in graphs
Kulandai Vel M.P.,Selvaraju P.,Sivagnanam C.
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.43.2012.557-562
Abstract: Let $G = (V, E)$ be a connected graph. A set $S$ of vertices in $G$ is a perfect dominating set if every vertex $v$ in $V-S$ is adjacent to exactly one vertex in $S$. A perfect dominating set $S$ is said to be a neighborhood connected perfect dominating set (ncpd-set) if the induced subgraph $$ is connected. The minimum cardinality of a ncpd-set of $G$ is called the neighborhood connected perfect domination number of $G$ and is denoted by $gamma_{ncp}(G)$. In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.
Chemotherapeutic Efficacy of Indigofera aspalathoides on 20-Methylcholanthrene-Induced Fibrosarcoma in Rats
Selva Kumar Sivagnanam,Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao,Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy Balasubramanian
ISRN Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/134356
Bullying among trainee doctors in Southern India: A questionnaire study
Bairy K,Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P,Sivagnanam G,Saraswathi S
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Workplace bullying is an important and serious issue in a healthcare setting because of its potential impact on the welfare of care-providers as well as the consumers. Aims: To gauge the extent of bullying among the medical community in India; as a subsidiary objective, to assess the personality trait of the bullying victims. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire survey was undertaken among a convenient sample of all the trainee doctors at a Government Medical College in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, in English with standard written explanation of bullying was used. Basic information like age, sex, job grade and the specialty in case of Postgraduates (PGs) were also collected. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square test for comparison of frequencies. Results: A total of 174 doctors (115 PGs and 59 junior doctors), took part in the study with a cent percent response. Nearly half of the surveyed population reported being subjected to bullying. Nearly 54 (53%) of the men and 35 (48%) of women were subjected to bullying. Significant proportions ( P < 0.0001) of medical personnel and paramedical staff bullied the PGs and junior doctors, respectively. More than 85 (90%) of bullying incidents went unreported. A significant ( P < 0.0001) percentage of PGs and junior doctors revealed a personality trait towards bully. Conclusions: Workplace bullying is common among trainee doctors and usually goes unreported.
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