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Female Anopheles gambiae antennae: increased transcript accumulation of the mosquito-specific odorant-binding-protein OBP2
Seth A Hoffman, Lakshminarayanan Aravind, Soundarapandian Velmurugan
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-27
Abstract: Our initial focus is on odorant binding proteins with differential transcript accumulation between female and male mosquitoes. We report that the odorant binding protein, OBP2 (AGAP003306), had increased expression in the antennae of female vs. male Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (G3 strain). The increased expression in antennae of females of this gene by quantitative RT-PCR was 4.2 to 32.3 fold in three independent biological replicates and two technical replicate experiments using A. gambiae from two different laboratories. OBP2 is a member of the vast OBP superfamily of insect odorant binding proteins and belongs to the predominantly dipteran clade that includes the Culex oviposition kairomone-binding OBP1. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that its orthologs are present across culicid mosquitoes and are likely to play a conserved role in recognizing a molecule that might be critical for female behavior.OBP2 has increased mRNA transcript accumulation in the antennae of female as compared to male A. gambiae. This molecule and related molecules may play an important role in female mosquito feeding and breeding behavior. This finding may be a step toward providing a foundation for understanding mosquito olfactory requirements and developing control strategies based on reducing mosquito feeding and breeding success.Factors that influence mosquito fitness, especially host seeking and mate finding are complex and modulated by multiple cues, of which olfactory cues are most important [1-4]. Detection of odor molecules requires odorant binding proteins (OBPs) that are abundant in antennal chemosensilla [5,6]. OBPs are low molecular weight soluble proteins that bind and transport odor molecules from sensillae to G-protein-coupled receptors in olfactory sensory neurons [6]. The finding of receptor AgamOBP1 binding to its ligand indole demonstrated the significance of OBPs in odor recognition [7]. Understanding olfactory function could lead to development of malaria control
Establishment of an In Vitro Assay for Assessing the Effects of Drugs on the Liver Stages of Plasmodium vivax Malaria
Rana Chattopadhyay,Soundarapandian Velmurugan,Chinnamma Chakiath,Lucy Andrews Donkor,Wilbur Milhous,John W. Barnwell,William E. Collins,Stephen L. Hoffman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014275
Abstract: Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is the second most important human malaria parasite. Recent data indicate that the impact of Pv malaria on the health and economies of the developing world has been dramatically underestimated. Pv has a unique feature in its life cycle. Uninucleate sporozoites (spz), after invasion of human hepatocytes, either proceed to develop into tens of thousands of merozoites within the infected hepatocytes or remain as dormant forms called hypnozoites, which cause relapses of malaria months to several years after the primary infection. Elimination of malaria caused by Pv will be facilitated by developing a safe, highly effective drug that eliminates Pv liver stages, including hypnozoites. Identification and development of such a drug would be facilitated by the development of a medium to high throughput assay for screening drugs against Pv liver stages. We undertook the present pilot study to (1) assess the feasibility of producing large quantities of purified, vialed, cryopreserved Pv sporozoites and (2) establish a system for culturing the liver stages of Pv in order to assess the effects of drugs on the liver stages of Pv. We used primaquine (PQ) to establish this assay model, because PQ is the only licensed drug known to clear all Pv hepatocyte stages, including hypnozoites, and the effect of PQ on Pv hepatocyte stage development in vitro has not previously been reported. We report that we have established the capacity to reproducibly infect hepatoma cells with purified, cyropreserved Pv spz from the same lot, quantitate the primary outcome variable of infected hepatoma cells and demonstrate the inhibitory activity of primaquine on the infected hepatoma cells. We have also identified small parasite forms that may be hypnozoites. These data provide the foundation for finalizing a medium throughput, high content assay to identify new drugs for the elimination of all Pv liver stages.
A State of Art Analysis of Telecommunication Data by k-Means and k-Medoids Clustering Algorithms  [PDF]
T. Velmurugan
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.61019
Cluster analysis is one of the major data analysis methods widely used for many practical applications in emerging areas of data mining. A good clustering method will produce high quality clusters with high intra-cluster similarity and low inter-cluster similarity. Clustering techniques are applied in different domains to predict future trends of available data and its uses for the real world. This research work is carried out to find the performance of two of the most delegated, partition based clustering algorithms namely k-Means and k-Medoids. A state of art analysis of these two algorithms is implemented and performance is analyzed based on their clustering result quality by means of its execution time and other components. Telecommunication data is the source data for this analysis. The connection oriented broadband data is given as input to find the clustering quality of the algorithms. Distance between the server locations and their connection is considered for clustering. Execution time for each algorithm is analyzed and the results are compared with one another. Results found in comparison study are satisfactory for the chosen application.
Breeding Behavior and Effect of Salinity and Osmolarity on Incubation and Hatching of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards) Under Laboratory Conditions
P. Soundarapandian
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2008,
Abstract: The second largest palaemonid prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii has great potential for aquaculture. In the present study the breeding behavior and hatching mechanism was studied. The berried females were kept in different salinities until the larvae hatched out. The developed eggs were kept in bowls containing respective salinity. The incubation period was 14 days in freshwater but it decreased to 11 days with the addition of brakishwater of 7 ppt salinity. Hatching percentage increases when the berried females were reared in 7 ppt salinity than freshwater. The eggs of M. malcolmsonii hatched in tap water, pond water and distilled water (control) but not in the different concentrations of sucrose solutions (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.1 M).
Enhancing Lab Source Anomalous Scattering Using Cr Kα Radiation for Its Potential Application in Determining Macromolecular Structures  [PDF]
Sibi Narayanan, Devadasan Velmurugan
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2012.13016
Abstract: Obtaining phase information for the solution of macromolecular structures is a bottleneck in X-ray crystallography. Anomalous dispersion was recognized as a powerful tool for phasing macromolecular structures. It was used mainly to supplement the isomorphous replacement or to locate the anomalous scatterer itself. The first step in solving macromolecular structures by SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) is the location of the anomalous scatterers. The SAD method for experimental phasing has evolved substantially in the recent years. A phasing tool, 5-amino-2,4,6- triiodoisophthalic acid (I3C—magic triangle), was incorporated into three proteins, lysozyme, glucose isomerase and thermolysin using quick-soaking and co-crystallization method in order to understand the binding of metal ion with proteins. The high quality of the diffraction data, the use of chromium anode X-ray radiation and the required amount of anomalous signal enabled way for successful structure determination and automated model building. An analysis and/or comparison of the sulfur and iodine anomalous signals at the Cr Kα wavelength are discussed.
Ce-SAD Phasing of Glucose Isomerase and Thermolysin Using Cu Radiation  [PDF]
Sibi Narayanan, Devadasan Velmurugan
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2013.23013

Current structural genomics projects aim to solve a large number of selected protein structures as fast as possible. High degree of automation and standardization is required at every step of the whole process to speed up protein structure determination. Phase problem is a bottleneck in macromolecular structure determination and also in model building which is a time-consuming task. The simplest approach to phasing macromolecular crystal structures is the use of a SAD signal. SAD data can be collected using the in-house copper (1.54 A) wavelength source. Data collected using copper wavelength with the incorporation of anomalously scattering heavy metal atoms may serve as a powerful tool for structural biologists to solve novel protein structures as well where synchrotron beam line is not available. A short soak of protein crystals in heavy metal solution or by incorporating heavy atoms into the protein drop while crystallizing the protein (co-crystallization) leads to incorporation of these heavy metal ions into the ordered solvent shell around the protein surface. The present work aims to determine whether cerium ion can be successfully incorporated into the protein crystal through quick-soaking method while maintaining the isomorphism. The study also aims in understanding whether this metal ion can be used for phasing purpose. The intensity data are collected and analyzed for anomalous signal, substructure solution and the binding sites.

Lab Source Anomalous Scattering Using Cr Kα Radiation  [PDF]
Sibi Narayanan, Devadasan Velmurugan
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2013.22008
Abstract: High-throughput crystallography requires a method by which the structures of proteins can be determined quickly and easily. Experimental phasing is an essential technique in determining the three-dimensional protein structures using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In macromolecular crystallography, the phases are derived either by Molecular Replacement (MR) method using the atomic coordinates of a structurally similar protein or by locating the positions of heavy atoms that are intrinsic to the protein or that have been added (MIR, MIRAS, SIR, SIRAS, MAD and SAD). Availability of in-house lab data collection sources (Cu and Cr radiation), cryo-crystallography and improved software for heavy atom location and density modification have increased the ability to solve protein structures using SAD. SAD phasing using intrinsic anomalous scatterers like sulfur, chlorine, calcium, manganese and zinc, which are already present in the protein becomes increasingly attractive owing to the advanced phasing methods. An analysis of successful SAD phasing on three proteins, lysozyme, glucose isomerase and thermolysin based on the signal of weak anomalous scatterers such as sulfur atom and chloride ion have been carried out. This analysis also proves that even the anomalous signal provided or present naturally in a macromolecule is good enough to solve crystal structures successfully using lab source chromium-generated X-ray radiation.
Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)
P. Soundarapandian,R. Babu
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2010,
Abstract: In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. The pH of the control tank w as 8.4 and the experimental tank was 8.2.The dissolved oxygen was higher in experimental tank (6.12ml/litre) and lower in control tanks (5.75ml/litre). Likewise, the ammonia was higher in control tanks (0.19 mg/litre) rather than experimental tanks (0.15mg/litre). The survival rate of different larval stages (nauplii, zoea and mysis) were maximum in the present study than that of control tanks. The final survival rate of the post larvae from the control and experimental tank was 70 and 30% respectively. The average length of all post larvae was maximum when reared in experimental tank than control tanks. The general conclusion obtained from the present study is that the probiotics plays a vital role in maintaining water quality parameters throughout the larval cycle. It is clear from the microbial load data that vibrio sp. is dominant in the control tanks than in experimental tanks.
Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction
P. Soundarapandian,B. Vasanthi
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2008,
Abstract: The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycocyanin and protein contents. When the extracted protein was resolved on a 15% SDS-PAGE gel, the cultures have polypeptide subunits ranging from the molecular weights 20 to 95 kDa. The liquid nitrogen method was found to be the best by extraction higher quantity of phycocyanin from all S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures, S. platensis culture CS-1 recorded the highest phycocyanin content and among the local isolates SM-2 showed the highest pigment content. SDS-PAGE analysis of phycocyanin pigment revealed two characteristic bands with a molecular weights of 14.3 and 20.1 kDa approximately for a and subunits.
Recent Technology for the Survival and Production of Giant Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon along South East Coast of India
P. Soundarapandian,B. Gunalan
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2008,
Abstract: In the present study, an attempt has been made to culture the giant tiger shrimp, P. monodon in six ponds each with 0.8 ha near Alagankulam village of Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu. The salinity of the six ponds was ranging between 16-30 ppt and pH was 7.6 to 8.0. Minimum 3.9 ppm dissolved oxygen and maximum 4.2 ppm was recorded during the culture period. The temperature was ranging between 27 to 30C and the transparency was 35 to 50 cm. Harvesting was carried out in ponds 1, 2 at DOC 142 and 3, 4 at DOC 143 and 5,6 at DOC 149. Average body weights of the ponds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are 38.46, 40.00, 40.00, 37.00, 38.46 and 37.00, respectively. Highest survival 76% was recorded in pond 4 and the lowest survival 68% recorded in pond 1. The average survival for all six ponds was calculated as 72%. Maximum production was reported in pond 2 (2,154 kg) and minimum was in the pond 1 (1,874 kg). The total production in all ponds was 11,998 tons. The average body weight and average daily growth was calculated as 38.49 and 0.26 g, respectively in all ponds. The maximum amount of feed was consumed by the shrimps in pond 2 (2,940) and minimum was in pond 1 (2,550). The FCR for all ponds were 1.36. Maximum net profit was obtained from pond 2 (Rs. 3,91,940) and minimum was in the pond 1 (Rs. 2, 69,492). So it is confirmed that 12 m-2 is an ideal stocking density for the culture of P. monodon as evidenced from the net profit Rs. 19,18,710. To get this profit, proper water quality management and feed management is essential.
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