Abstract:
Andrew J Ghio,1 Joleen M Soukup,1 Judy H Richards,1 Bernard M Fischer,2 Judith A Voynow,2 Donald E Schmechel31US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics,3Joseph and Kathleen Bryan Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Department of Medicine (Neurology), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: There is evidence that proteases and antiproteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that α-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this antiprotease in humans are associated with a systemic disruption in iron homeostasis. Archived plasma samples from Alpha-1 Foundation (30 MM, 30 MZ, and 30 ZZ individuals) were analyzed for A1AT, ferritin, transferrin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Plasma samples were also assayed for metals using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Plasma levels of A1AT in MZ and ZZ individuals were approximately 60% and 20% of those for MM individuals respectively. Plasma ferritin concentrations in those with the ZZ genotype were greater relative to those individuals with either MM or MZ genotype. Plasma transferrin for MM, MZ, and ZZ genotypes showed no significant differences. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant (negative) relationship between plasma concentrations of A1AT and ferritin while that between A1AT and transferrin levels was not significant. Plasma CRP concentrations were not significantly different between MM, MZ, and ZZ individuals. ICPAES measurement of metals confirmed elevated plasma concentrations of nonheme iron among ZZ individuals. Nonheme iron concentrations correlated (negatively) with levels of A1AT. A1AT deficiency is associated with evidence of a disruption in iron homeostasis with plasma ferritin and nonheme iron concentrations being elevated among those with the ZZ genotype.Keywords: α-1-antitrypsin deficiency, serpins, proteinase inhibitor proteins, ferritin, transferrin

Abstract:
iency of α-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis Original Research (727) Total Article Views Authors: Ghio AJ, Soukup JM, Richards JH, Fischer BM, Voynow JA, Schmechel DE Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 45 - 51 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S37897 Received: 08 September 2012 Accepted: 28 October 2012 Published: 22 January 2013 Andrew J Ghio,1 Joleen M Soukup,1 Judy H Richards,1 Bernard M Fischer,2 Judith A Voynow,2 Donald E Schmechel3 1US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics,3Joseph and Kathleen Bryan Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Department of Medicine (Neurology), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: There is evidence that proteases and antiproteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that α-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this antiprotease in humans are associated with a systemic disruption in iron homeostasis. Archived plasma samples from Alpha-1 Foundation (30 MM, 30 MZ, and 30 ZZ individuals) were analyzed for A1AT, ferritin, transferrin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Plasma samples were also assayed for metals using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Plasma levels of A1AT in MZ and ZZ individuals were approximately 60% and 20% of those for MM individuals respectively. Plasma ferritin concentrations in those with the ZZ genotype were greater relative to those individuals with either MM or MZ genotype. Plasma transferrin for MM, MZ, and ZZ genotypes showed no significant differences. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant (negative) relationship between plasma concentrations of A1AT and ferritin while that between A1AT and transferrin levels was not significant. Plasma CRP concentrations were not significantly different between MM, MZ, and ZZ individuals. ICPAES measurement of metals confirmed elevated plasma concentrations of nonheme iron among ZZ individuals. Nonheme iron concentrations correlated (negatively) with levels of A1AT. A1AT deficiency is associated with evidence of a disruption in iron homeostasis with plasma ferritin and nonheme iron concentrations being elevated among those with the ZZ genotype.

Abstract:
We give a direct, detailed and relatively short proof of Shelah's theorem on club guessing sequences on $S^{\mu^+}_\mu$ (for any regular, uncountable cardinal $\mu$).

Abstract:
Labour market policy encourages both the preventive and proactive approaches in order to avoid negative impacts. Unfortunately, a large number of evaluation studies show that active intervention is helpful only if it is targeted according to the prevailing situation and needs of claimants. The first step in the targeting process is to determine in advance which claimant has a significant probability of becoming long-term unemployed and just how high the risk is. This paper deals with the predicting of long-term unemployment at the individual level. In contrast with research carried out elsewhere, the paper stresses the theory behind the statistical model. As far as the Czech Republic is concerned it has been shown that a model computed using only data from the official unemployment register is correct in 78% of cases, i.e. 20 percentage points more than the result obtained by means of the constant or risk group approaches.

Abstract:
We give a negative answer to a question of Erdos and Hajnal: it is consistent that GCH holds and there is a colouring $c:[{\omega_2}]^2\to 2$ establishing $\omega_2 \not\to [(\omega_1;{\omega})]^2_2$ such that some colouring $g:[\omega_1]^2\to 2$ can not be embedded into $c$. It is also consistent that $2^{\omega_1}$ is arbitrarily large, and a function $g$ establishes $2^{\omega_1} \not\to [(\omega_1,\omega_2)]^2_{\omega_1}$ such that there is no uncountable $g$-rainbow subset of $2^{\omega_1}$. We also show that for each $k\in {\omega}$ it is consistent with Martin's Axiom that the negative partition relation $\omega_1 \not\to^* [(\omega_1;\omega_1)]_{k-bdd}$ holds.

Abstract:
The usage of elementary submodels is a simple but powerful method to prove theorems, or to simplify proofs in infinite combinatorics. First we introduce all the necessary concepts of logic, then we prove classical theorems using elementary submodels. We also present a new proof of Nash-Williams's theorem on cycle-decomposition of graphs, and finally we improve a decomposition theorem of Laviolette concerning bond-faithful decompositions of graphs.

Abstract:
We prove that there exists a 0-dimensional, scattered $T_2$ space $X$ such that $X$ is aD but not linearly D, answering a question of Arhangel'skii. The constructions are based on Shelah's club guessing principles.

Abstract:
Using Shelah's revised GCH theorem we prove that if mu=kappa for all b from B has a conflict-free colorings with kappa colors. Putting together these results we obtain that if mu=beth_omega for all b from B has a conflict-free colorings with beth_omega colors. To yield the above mentioned results we also need to prove a certain compactness theorem concerning singular cardinals.