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Miltefosina oral para el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis
Soto,Jaime; Soto,Paula;
Biomédica , 2006,
Abstract: reduced efficacy, difficulties of administration and increasing frequency and severity of adverse events of pentavalent antimony have stimulated the quest for new anti-leishmanial drugs. several clinical studies in latin america testing injectable, oral and topical anti-leishmanial drugs have yielded inconsistent results. since 1998 indian researchers have conducted clinical trials evaluating hexadecylphosphocoline (miltefosine) in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in 1999 clinical studies were initiated in colombia in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. up to date, more than 2.500 patients have been treated with miltefosine in india (visceral by l. donovani) and colombia (cutaneous caused by l. panamensis) obtaining cure rates over 91% when a dose of 2.5 mg / kg / day during 28 days was used, with no difference between na?ve and relapsing patients. in guatemala the overall cure rate for patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis was 53% (33% for l. braziliensis; 60% for l. mexicana) while in afghanistan the cure rate of patients with l. tropica was 63%. patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal disease and co-infected with hiv have been treated with initial success; however these diseases have frequent relapses. mild gastrointestinal events (i.e. nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea) were present in 35 to 60% of patients included in clinical trials and 10 to 20% had a mild increase in transaminases and creatinine levels. miltefosine, originally an antineoplastic drug, has a potent leishmanicidal activity as consequence of its interference in parasite metabolic pathways and the induction of apoptosis, has demonstrated efficacy against l. donovani visceral disease and l. panamensis cutaneous disease. now, miltefosine must demonstrate its efficacy against other species associated with diverse clinical presentations.
Estado actual y futuro de la terapia anti-leishmaniásica en Colombia
Soto,Jaime; Soto,Paula;
Biomédica , 2006,
Abstract: pentavalent antimonials are the first choice to treat leishmaniasis in colombia. however, a 600% increase in the total dose has been necessary in order to maintain their efficacy. cure rates varying between 93 and 25% can reflect differences in parasite susceptibility, but are more likely secondary to deficiencies in compliance with treatment guidelines. we review the current situation of efficacy and use of pentavalent antimony compounds, amphotericin b, pentamidine and miltefosine and attempt a projection for the next following years. to determine the real situation of response to antileishmanial drugs and to extend their useful life, the establishment of surveillance mechanisms to cover all factors involved is necessary. a sentinel site surveillance strategy to allow punctual observations in time, in specific geographical areas and in particular local situations, is proposed.
Vigencia y significado del pretérito anterior: Un estudio a partir del espa?ol escrito en Chile
Soto,Guillermo;
Estudios filológicos , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0071-17132009000100014
Abstract: spanish past anterior (pa, hubo terminado - was ended) is a rarely used and studied verbal form. this work is a research into its meaning and current use in written chilean spanish. 195 cases from 1845 to the 21st century and 16 cases from the 16th to the 17th centuries were analyzed. this study proposes that pa is restricted to dynamic and telic states of affairs (accomplishments and achievements) and communicates a phasal aspect focused on the highly dynamic point when a resultant state is brought about. this characterisation accounts for prototypical uses of pa in narratives and as a discourse coherence device. it also accounts for such marginal cases as 'endpoint' pa and non-narrative pa. this work suggests that, because of its relatively low degree of grammaticalization, pa should not be included within the compound forms of the spanish verbal system.
Intertextualídad explícita en textos académicos de estudiantes universitarios: Un estudio exploratorio
Soto,Guillermo;
Literatura y lingüística , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-58112009000100008
Abstract: cites and other intertextual devices play several functions in scientific texts. in thisexploratorystudy, i analyze intertextual devicesintextswrittenbysecond year university students of natural sciences and social sciences. the results show that they use those devices restrictively, inquantitative and qualitative terms. i suggest that cite analysis can be used as a tool for evaluating the development ofacademicdiscoursein highereducation.
Patología y patogénesis de los hemangiomas
Soto,J;
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra , 2004, DOI: 10.4321/S1137-66272004000200003
Abstract: haemangiomas are tumours of infancy that are characterised by an initial phase of proliferation followed by an involution that, in the majority of cases, results in complete regression. from the pathological point of view, this is a hyperplasic proliferation of endothelial cells, which in the phase of proliferation form highly cellular masses with scarce vascular lumina, invading the dermis and/or subcutaneous cellular tissue. cellularity diminishes in the phase of involution, the vascular lumina increases and there is a total, or near total, replacement by residual fibroadipose tissue. its pathology is not well known and two theories are at present postulated: on the one hand, an intrinsic defect of the precursor endothelial cells that, through somatic mutation in a gene regulating angiogenesis, develop a phenotype that induces clonal proliferation. on the other hand, it might arise from cells originating in the placenta that embolize in foetal tissue during pregnancy or delivery. the similarities in antigen expression between haemangioma cells and placenta tissue support this second hypothesis.
MANOYHΛ B′ΠAΛAIOΛOΓOΣ: Aυτoκρατoρα? και συγγραφε? (1350-1425)
Soto,Roberto;
Byzantion nea hellás , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-84712009000100004
Abstract: the work "manoyhλ b′πaλaioλoγo?: aυτoκρατoρα? και συγγραφε?" (1350-1425) presents a synthesis, in the greek language, of the work, both political and literary, of the antepenultimate byzantine emperor. it focuses mainly on the "mirror for princes" which was composed and dedicated to his son and heir to the throne, john viii. the text keeps the original form in which it was presented at the
AJUSTE ESTACIONAL E INTEGRACION EN VARIABLES MACROECONOMICAS
Soto,Raimundo;
Cuadernos de economía , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-68212002011600006
Abstract: separating seasonal components from other sources of economic fluctuations is crucial for both economic modeling and policy making. practitioners treat seasonality as noise to be removed before estimating models and tend to apply deseasonalizing methods in a rather mechanic manner. removing seasonal components is, nevertheless, not a trivial task. this technical note shows that the most popular deseasonalizing methods distort the time series properties of the variables and, thus, cannot be considered harmless procedures. modern time-series techniques for non stationary processes are applied to the study of the seasonal components of the 15 main macroeconomic variables of the chilean economy. the main result is that the presence of seasonal unit roots render standard deseasonalizing techniques inadequate and models based on seasonally-adjusted data unreliable
Narrativas de Profesionales Chilenos Sobre sus Trayectorias Laborales: La Construcción de Identidades en el Trabajo
Soto,álvaro;
Psykhe (Santiago) , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-22282011000100002
Abstract: this article examines the phenomenon of mobile labor careers and analyzes its relationship with characteristic forms of identity construction in the contemporary workplace in chile. in order to approach the meanings and dominant logics in current enterprises from an heuristic perspective, an analysis was carried out of the narratives regarding the careers of nine "high-level" professionals within organizations embedded in the flexible labor market. the methodological design was based on the grounded theory model. the information generated from individual in-depth interviews was analyzed following the method of continuous comparison. using this method, the authors identified shared meanings about labor activity, the orientation of the career paths of the interviewees, and the social bonds generated at work, which mark subjective continuities and constitute foundations for the construction of labor identities. they are structured almost exclusively on short-term work experiences and representations of career paths based on mobility within an open labor market.
Oligotrophic patterns in southern Chilean lakes: the relevance of nutrients and mixing depth
SOTO,DORIS;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2002000200009
Abstract: southern chilean monomictic, temperate lakes are generally oligotrophic with high water transparency, low productivity and some apparent resistance to disturbances such as phosphorus additions. this paper attempts to explain low chlorophyll-a values using descriptive and experimental approaches. three different scales are used, (a) a micro scale both in space and time, with experimental manipulations of n, p and total light in 24 enclosures in lake llanquihue, (b) a longer time scale analysing 18 months of data in several sites within lake llanquihue grouped as salmon farming sites, town bays and control sites, and (c) a broader time scale (9 years) by monitoring lakes puyehue, rupanco and llanquihue, all in the araucanian lake region and yelcho lake in the north patagonian region. in the llanquihue in-lake sampling, total phosphorus values varied between 1 and 12 mg l-1 between sites, showing marginal site effects, p = 0.09 (salmon sites had greater values), however, chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations were generally low (< 2 mg l-1) and did not show site effects. dissolved inorganic nitrogen (din) concentrations were lower than 30 mg l-1 and showed a better predictive power than chl-a. the analysis between lakes showed the lowest mean chl-a values in lake yelcho (0.7 mg l-1) and the highest in lake puyehue (2.1 mg l-1 ). similar patterns were found for mean total p values, however there were no clear temporal trends through the 9 year sampling. the n/p molar ratio for the dissolved forms was generally below 20. in the enclosure experiment n had a positive significant effect on chl-a concentration but neither p nor light had significant effects. another outstanding result was that chl-a values in the control bags were significantly higher than values in the lake. in all the lakes tn values did not exceed 20 mmol l-1 and tp did not exceed 0.8 mmol l-1 and thus n limitation could be proposed as playing an important role in regulation chl-a and productivity. another
Intertextualídad explícita en textos académicos de estudiantes universitarios: Un estudio exploratorio
Guillermo Soto
Literatura y lingüística , 2009,
Abstract: Las citas y otros dispositivos intertextuales cumplen diversas funciones en los textos científicos. En este estudio exploratorio, se analizan mecanismos intertextuales en escritos de estudiantes de segundo a o de universidad tanto en ciencias naturales como sociales. Los resultados muestran que los sujetos emplean los dispositivos de modo reducido, tanto cuantitativa como cualitativamente. Se sugiere que el análisis de citas puede ser una herramienta de evaluación del desarrollo del discurso académico en la educación superior. Cites and other intertextual devices play several functions in scientific texts. In thisexploratorystudy, I analyze intertextual devicesintextswrittenbysecond year university students of natural sciences and social sciences. The results show that they use those devices restrictively, inquantitative and qualitative terms. I suggest that cite analysis can be used as a tool for evaluating the development ofacademicdiscoursein highereducation.
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