Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5883 matches for " Sophie Cotton equal contributor "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /5883
Display every page Item
Cathelicidin-like Helminth Defence Molecules (HDMs): Absence of Cytotoxic, Anti-microbial and Anti-protozoan Activities Imply a Specific Adaptation to Immune Modulation
Karine Thivierge equal contributor,Sophie Cotton equal contributor,Deborah A. Schaefer,Michael W. Riggs,Joyce To,Maria E. Lund,Mark W. Robinson,John P. Dalton,Sheila M. Donnelly
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002307
Abstract: Host defence peptides (HDPs) are expressed throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. They have multifunctional roles in the defence against infectious agents of mammals, possessing both bactericidal and immune-modulatory activities. We have identified a novel family of molecules secreted by helminth parasites (helminth defence molecules; HDMs) that exhibit similar structural and biochemical characteristics to the HDPs. Here, we have analyzed the functional activities of four HDMs derived from Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica and compared them to human, mouse, bovine and sheep HDPs. Unlike the mammalian HDPs the helminth-derived HDMs show no antimicrobial activity and are non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells (macrophages and red blood cells). However, both the mammalian- and helminth-derived peptides suppress the activation of macrophages by microbial stimuli and alter the response of B cells to cytokine stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesise that HDMs represent a novel family of HDPs that evolved to regulate the immune responses of their mammalian hosts by retaining potent immune modulatory properties without causing deleterious cytotoxic effects.
IFN-Lambda (IFN-λ) Is Expressed in a Tissue-Dependent Fashion and Primarily Acts on Epithelial Cells In Vivo
Caroline Sommereyns equal contributor,Sophie Paul equal contributor,Peter Staeheli,Thomas Michiels
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000017
Abstract: Interferons (IFN) exert antiviral, immunomodulatory and cytostatic activities. IFN-α/β (type I IFN) and IFN-λ (type III IFN) bind distinct receptors, but regulate similar sets of genes and exhibit strikingly similar biological activities. We analyzed to what extent the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ systems overlap in vivo in terms of expression and response. We observed a certain degree of tissue specificity in the production of IFN-λ. In the brain, IFN-α/β was readily produced after infection with various RNA viruses, whereas expression of IFN-λ was low in this organ. In the liver, virus infection induced the expression of both IFN-α/β and IFN-λ genes. Plasmid electrotransfer-mediated in vivo expression of individual IFN genes allowed the tissue and cell specificities of the responses to systemic IFN-α/β and IFN-λ to be compared. The response to IFN-λ correlated with expression of the α subunit of the IFN-λ receptor (IL-28Rα). The IFN-λ response was prominent in the stomach, intestine and lungs, but very low in the central nervous system and spleen. At the cellular level, the response to IFN-λ in kidney and brain was restricted to epithelial cells. In contrast, the response to IFN-α/β was observed in various cell types in these organs, and was most prominent in endothelial cells. Thus, the IFN-λ system probably evolved to specifically protect epithelia. IFN-λ might contribute to the prevention of viral invasion through skin and mucosal surfaces.
Genomic Confirmation of Hybridisation and Recent Inbreeding in a Vector-Isolated Leishmania Population
Matthew B. Rogers equal contributor,Tim Downing equal contributor,Barbara A. Smith,Hideo Imamura,Mandy Sanders,Milena Svobodova,Petr Volf,Matthew Berriman,James A. Cotton ,Deborah F. Smith
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004092
Abstract: Although asexual reproduction via clonal propagation has been proposed as the principal reproductive mechanism across parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus, sexual recombination has long been suspected, based on hybrid marker profiles detected in field isolates from different geographical locations. The recent experimental demonstration of a sexual cycle in Leishmania within sand flies has confirmed the occurrence of hybridisation, but knowledge of the parasite life cycle in the wild still remains limited. Here, we use whole genome sequencing to investigate the frequency of sexual reproduction in Leishmania, by sequencing the genomes of 11 Leishmania infantum isolates from sand flies and 1 patient isolate in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the ?ukurova province of southeast Turkey. This is the first genome-wide examination of a vector-isolated population of Leishmania parasites. A genome-wide pattern of patchy heterozygosity and SNP density was observed both within individual strains and across the whole group. Comparisons with other Leishmania donovani complex genome sequences suggest that these isolates are derived from a single cross of two diverse strains with subsequent recombination within the population. This interpretation is supported by a statistical model of the genomic variability for each strain compared to the L. infantum reference genome strain as well as genome-wide scans for recombination within the population. Further analysis of these heterozygous blocks indicates that the two parents were phylogenetically distinct. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium indicate that this population reproduced primarily clonally following the original hybridisation event, but that some recombination also occurred. This observation allowed us to estimate the relative rates of sexual and asexual reproduction within this population, to our knowledge the first quantitative estimate of these events during the Leishmania life cycle.
The C-Terminal Domain of the Bacterial SSB Protein Acts as a DNA Maintenance Hub at Active Chromosome Replication Forks
Audrey Costes equal contributor,Fran?ois Lecointe equal contributor,Stephen McGovern,Sophie Quevillon-Cheruel,Patrice Polard
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001238
Abstract: We have investigated in vivo the role of the carboxy-terminal domain of the Bacillus subtilis Single-Stranded DNA Binding protein (SSBCter) as a recruitment platform at active chromosomal forks for many proteins of the genome maintenance machineries. We probed this SSBCter interactome using GFP fusions and by Tap-tag and biochemical analysis. It includes at least 12 proteins. The interactome was previously shown to include PriA, RecG, and RecQ and extended in this study by addition of DnaE, SbcC, RarA, RecJ, RecO, XseA, Ung, YpbB, and YrrC. Targeting of YpbB to active forks appears to depend on RecS, a RecQ paralogue, with which it forms a stable complex. Most of these SSB partners are conserved in bacteria, while others, such as the essential DNA polymerase DnaE, YrrC, and the YpbB/RecS complex, appear to be specific to B. subtilis. SSBCter deletion has a moderate impact on B. subtilis cell growth. However, it markedly affects the efficiency of repair of damaged genomic DNA and arrested replication forks. ssbΔCter mutant cells appear deficient in RecA loading on ssDNA, explaining their inefficiency in triggering the SOS response upon exposure to genotoxic agents. Together, our findings show that the bacterial SSBCter acts as a DNA maintenance hub at active chromosomal forks that secures their propagation along the genome.
USF-1 Is Critical for Maintaining Genome Integrity in Response to UV-Induced DNA Photolesions
Yorann Baron equal contributor,Sébastien Corre equal contributor,Nicolas Mouchet,Sophie Vaulont,Sharon Prince,Marie-Dominique Galibert
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002470
Abstract: An important function of all organisms is to ensure that their genetic material remains intact and unaltered through generations. This is an extremely challenging task since the cell's DNA is constantly under assault by endogenous and environmental agents. To protect against this, cells have evolved effective mechanisms to recognize DNA damage, signal its presence, and mediate its repair. While these responses are expected to be highly regulated because they are critical to avoid human diseases, very little is known about the regulation of the expression of genes involved in mediating their effects. The Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is the major DNA–repair process involved in the recognition and removal of UV-mediated DNA damage. Here we use a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays with an intermittent UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the regulation of key players in the DNA–damage recognition step of NER sub-pathways (TCR and GGR). We show an up-regulation in gene expression of CSA and HR23A, which are involved in TCR and GGR, respectively. Importantly, we show that this occurs through a p53 independent mechanism and that it is coordinated by the stress-responsive transcription factor USF-1. Furthermore, using a mouse model we show that the loss of USF-1 compromises DNA repair, which suggests that USF-1 plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability.
RelAp43, a Member of the NF-κB Family Involved in Innate Immune Response against Lyssavirus Infection
Sophie Luco equal contributor,Olivier Delmas equal contributor ,Pierre-Olivier Vidalain,Frédéric Tangy,Robert Weil,Hervé Bourhy
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003060
Abstract: NF-κB transcription factors are crucial for many cellular processes. NF-κB is activated by viral infections to induce expression of antiviral cytokines. Here, we identified a novel member of the human NF-κB family, denoted RelAp43, the nucleotide sequence of which contains several exons as well as an intron of the RelA gene. RelAp43 is expressed in all cell lines and tissues tested and exhibits all the properties of a NF-κB protein. Although its sequence does not include a transactivation domain, identifying it as a class I member of the NF-κB family, it is able to potentiate RelA-mediated transactivation and stabilize dimers comprising p50. Furthermore, RelAp43 stimulates the expression of HIAP1, IRF1, and IFN-β - three genes involved in cell immunity against viral infection. It is also targeted by the matrix protein of lyssaviruses, the agents of rabies, resulting in an inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, our data provide the description of a novel functional member of the NF-κB family, which plays a key role in the induction of anti-viral innate immune response.
FliZ Is a Global Regulatory Protein Affecting the Expression of Flagellar and Virulence Genes in Individual Xenorhabdus nematophila Bacterial Cells
Grégory Jubelin equal contributor,Anne Lanois equal contributor,Dany Severac,Stéphanie Rialle,Cyrille Longin,Sophie Gaudriault,Alain Givaudan
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003915
Abstract: Heterogeneity in the expression of various bacterial genes has been shown to result in the presence of individuals with different phenotypes within clonal bacterial populations. The genes specifying motility and flagellar functions are coordinately regulated and form a complex regulon, the flagellar regulon. Complex interplay has recently been demonstrated in the regulation of flagellar and virulence gene expression in many bacterial pathogens. We show here that FliZ, a DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila, affecting not only hemolysin production and virulence in insects, but efficient swimming motility. RNA-Seq analysis identified FliZ as a global regulatory protein controlling the expression of 278 Xenorhabdus genes either directly or indirectly. FliZ is required for the efficient expression of all flagellar genes, probably through its positive feedback loop, which controls expression of the flhDC operon, the master regulator of the flagellar circuit. FliZ also up- or downregulates the expression of numerous genes encoding non-flagellar proteins potentially involved in key steps of the Xenorhabdus lifecycle. Single-cell analysis revealed the bimodal expression of six identified markers of the FliZ regulon during exponential growth of the bacterial population. In addition, a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RT-qPCR quantification showed that this bimodality generated a mixed population of cells either expressing (“ON state”) or not expressing (“OFF state”) FliZ-dependent genes. Moreover, studies of a bacterial population exposed to a graded series of FliZ concentrations showed that FliZ functioned as a rheostat, controlling the rate of transition between the “OFF” and “ON” states in individuals. FliZ thus plays a key role in cell fate decisions, by transiently creating individuals with different potentials for motility and host interactions.
HPV16-E7 Expression in Squamous Epithelium Creates a Local Immune Suppressive Environment via CCL2- and CCL5- Mediated Recruitment of Mast Cells
Anne-Sophie Bergot,Neill Ford,Graham R. Leggatt,James W. Wells equal contributor,Ian H. Frazer equal contributor ,Michele A. Grimbaldeston equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004466
Abstract: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein promotes the transformation of HPV infected epithelium to malignancy. Here, we use a murine model in which the E7 protein of HPV16 is expressed as a transgene in epithelium to show that mast cells are recruited to the basal layer of E7-expressing epithelium, and that this recruitment is dependent on the epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7 by inactivating Rb dependent cell cycle regulation. E7 induced epithelial hyperplasia is associated with increased epidermal secretion of CCL2 and CCL5 chemokines, which attract mast cells to the skin. Mast cells in E7 transgenic skin, in contrast to those in non-transgenic skin, exhibit degranulation. Notably, we found that resident mast cells in E7 transgenic skin cause local immune suppression as evidenced by tolerance of E7 transgenic skin grafts when mast cells are present compared to the rejection of mast cell-deficient E7 grafts in otherwise competent hosts. Thus, our findings suggest that mast cells, recruited towards CCL2 and CCL5 expressed by epithelium induced to proliferate by E7, may contribute to an immunosuppressive environment that enables the persistence of HPV E7 protein induced pre-cancerous lesions.
Contrasting Population Structures of Two Vectors of African Trypanosomoses in Burkina Faso: Consequences for Control
Naférima Koné equal contributor,Jérémy Bouyer equal contributor ,Sophie Ravel,Marc J. B. Vreysen,Kouadjo T. Domagni,Sandrine Causse,Philippe Solano,Thierry de Mee?s
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001217
Abstract: Background African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and Glossina tachinoides Westwood are the major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their removal will in most cases only be sustainable if the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides inhabiting four adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso, i.e. the Mouhoun, the Comoé, the Niger and the Sissili River Basins. Isolation by distance was significant for both species across river basins, and dispersal of G. tachinoides was ~3 times higher than that of G. p. gambiensis. Thus, the data presented indicate that no strong barriers to gene flow exists between riverine tsetse populations in adjacent river basins, especially so for G. tachinoides. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, potential re-invasion of flies from adjacent river basins will have to be prevented by establishing buffer zones between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s), in the framework of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign) eradication project that is presently targeting the northern part of the Mouhoun River Basin. We argue that these genetic analyses should always be part of the baseline data collection before any tsetse control project is initiated.
Evidence for a Xer/dif System for Chromosome Resolution in Archaea
Diego Cortez,Sophie Quevillon-Cheruel,Simonetta Gribaldo,Nicole Desnoues,Guennadi Sezonov,Patrick Forterre equal contributor,Marie-Claude Serre equal contributor
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001166
Abstract: Homologous recombination events between circular chromosomes, occurring during or after replication, can generate dimers that need to be converted to monomers prior to their segregation at cell division. In Escherichia coli, chromosome dimers are converted to monomers by two paralogous site-specific tyrosine recombinases of the Xer family (XerC/D). The Xer recombinases act at a specific dif site located in the replication termination region, assisted by the cell division protein FtsK. This chromosome resolution system has been predicted in most Bacteria and further characterized for some species. Archaea have circular chromosomes and an active homologous recombination system and should therefore resolve chromosome dimers. Most archaea harbour a single homologue of bacterial XerC/D proteins (XerA), but not of FtsK. Therefore, the role of XerA in chromosome resolution was unclear. Here, we have identified dif-like sites in archaeal genomes by using a combination of modeling and comparative genomics approaches. These sites are systematically located in replication termination regions. We validated our in silico prediction by showing that the XerA protein of Pyrococcus abyssi specifically recombines plasmids containing the predicted dif site in vitro. In contrast to the bacterial system, XerA can recombine dif sites in the absence of protein partners. Whereas Archaea and Bacteria use a completely different set of proteins for chromosome replication, our data strongly suggest that XerA is most likely used for chromosome resolution in Archaea.
Page 1 /5883
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.