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GLD-4-Mediated Translational Activation Regulates the Size of the Proliferative Germ Cell Pool in the Adult C. elegans Germ Line
Sophia Millonigg,Ryuji Minasaki equal contributor,Marco Nousch equal contributor,Christian R. Eckmann
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004647
Abstract: To avoid organ dysfunction as a consequence of tissue diminution or tumorous growth, a tight balance between cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained in metazoans. However, cell-intrinsic gene expression mechanisms controlling adult tissue homeostasis remain poorly understood. By focusing on the adult Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive tissue, we show that translational activation of mRNAs is a fundamental mechanism to maintain tissue homeostasis. Our genetic experiments identified the Trf4/5-type cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase (cytoPAP) GLD-4 and its enzymatic activator GLS-1 to perform a dual role in regulating the size of the proliferative zone. Consistent with a ubiquitous expression of GLD-4 cytoPAP in proliferative germ cells, its genetic activity is required to maintain a robust proliferative adult germ cell pool, presumably by regulating many mRNA targets encoding proliferation-promoting factors. Based on translational reporters and endogenous protein expression analyses, we found that gld-4 activity promotes GLP-1/Notch receptor expression, an essential factor of continued germ cell proliferation. RNA-protein interaction assays documented also a physical association of the GLD-4/GLS-1 cytoPAP complex with glp-1 mRNA, and ribosomal fractionation studies established that GLD-4 cytoPAP activity facilitates translational efficiency of glp-1 mRNA. Moreover, we found that in proliferative cells the differentiation-promoting factor, GLD-2 cytoPAP, is translationally repressed by the stem cell factor and PUF-type RNA-binding protein, FBF. This suggests that cytoPAP-mediated translational activation of proliferation-promoting factors, paired with PUF-mediated translational repression of differentiation factors, forms a translational control circuit that expands the proliferative germ cell pool. Our additional genetic experiments uncovered that the GLD-4/GLS-1 cytoPAP complex promotes also differentiation, forming a redundant translational circuit with GLD-2 cytoPAP and the translational repressor GLD-1 to restrict proliferation. Together with previous findings, our combined data reveals two interconnected translational activation/repression circuitries of broadly conserved RNA regulators that maintain the balance between adult germ cell proliferation and differentiation.
Photochemical Properties of Precipitated Solid Aerosol Produced by Burning of Titanium Microparticles under Ambient Air  [PDF]
Valery Zakharenko, Sophia Khromova
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.12017
Abstract: In order to neutralize a drastic pollution of the environment (technogenic catastrophe) it is suggested to use technogenic technologies of chemical compound decontamination. One in such technologies can be the technology using metal oxide solid aerosols which are active in removal of pollutant compounds and obtainable by combustion under ambient air of appropriate metal particles, for example, aluminum, magnesium, titanium and etc. It is shown that the titanium dioxide out of an solid aerosol, obtained by pyrotechnic mixture combustion containing titanium microparticles has optic, chemical and photocatalytic properties close to properties of titanium dioxide produced by a different way. The production of such aerosol in direct place of a technogenic catastrophe can be made for the cleaning of atmosphere near a pollution source.
The Upper Jordan River Algal Communities are Evidence of Long-Term Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts  [PDF]
Sophia S. Barinova, Eviatar Nevo
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.26058
Abstract: Spatial and temporal algal diversity changes were studied in the major drinking water source of Israel - the Upper Jordan River. During 2006-2009, we found 232 species and infraspecies of algae and cyanobacteria: 85 of which were new for the Upper Jordan River Basin including three new for Israel. During many years of study of the Upper Jordan River, we collected information for the database of algal diversity. Historical analysis from 1883 to 2009 shows fluctuation of the whole algal diversity. Environmental indicator species show peaks in 1951, 1965, 1978, and 2009. Salinity impact was found in 1938 and 2000; acidification was detected in 1938, 1996, and 2000, and organic pollution, in 1996. Therefore, we can conclude that 1938, 1996, and 2000 were critical periods for the Upper Jordan River ecosystem. Indication of the trophic status shows stress of organic pollution since the 1970s, which was marked by dramatic increases in eutraphentic and hypereutraphentic species. The present analysis shows three peaks in the fluctuation in diversity throughout the river canal, which correlated with the organic pollution impact from the Masade village effluence in the middle reaches and near Lake Kinneret. Pollution was significant in rainy winters and stimulated species diversity development. The different approaches in comparing diversity in each river of the Upper Jordan Basin revealed that hydrology is a major regulating factor in species composition of the algal communities, which were formed under the influence of regional climatic factors. Therefore, the river can be highlighted as a natural system with high buffering and a self-purification capacity at the present time.
Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources and Determination of Optimal Well Locations Using ANN-GA Based Simulation-Optimization Model  [PDF]
Sophia Leichombam, Rajib Kumar Bhattacharjya
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83034
Abstract: The linked simulation-optimization model can be used for solving a complex groundwater pollution source identification problem. Advanced simulators have been developed and successfully linked with numerous optimization algorithms for identification of groundwater pollution sources. However, the identification of pollution sources in a groundwater aquifer using linked simulation-optimization model has proven to be computationally expensive. To overcome this computational burden, an approximate simulator, the artificial neural network (ANN) model can be used as a surrogate model to replace the complex time-consuming numerical simulation model. However, for large-scale aquifer system, the performance of the ANN-based surrogate model is not satisfactory when a single ANN model is used to predict the concentration at different observation locations. In such a situation, the model efficiency can be enhanced by developing separate ANN model for each of the observation locations. The number of ANN models is equal to the number of observation wells in the aquifer. As a result, the complexity of the ANN-based simulation-optimization model will be related to the number of observation wells. Thus, this study used a modified formulation to find out the optimal numbers of observation wells which will eventually reduce the computational time of the model. The performance of the ANN-based simulation-optimization model is evaluated by identifying the groundwater pollutant sources of a hypothetical study area. The limited evaluation shows that the model has the potential for field application.
Industrial Archaeology as Historical Archaeology and Cultural Anthropology
Sophia Labadi
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2001, DOI: 10.5334/pia.162
Abstract: This article aims to analyse some of the issues and recent evolutions in the definition and theorisation of industrial archaeology. The chronological boundaries of the field are first of all analysed to demonstrate that it is difficult to restrict the scope of industrial archaeology to the Industrial Revolution. The second aim of this paper is to examine the thematic boundaries of industrial archaeology using recent publications in historical archaeology. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the study of industrial archaeology using a variety of subjects, approaches and methods is stressed. The final aim of this paper is to define industrial archaeology as cultural anthropology, concerned with studying and explaining people at work in different settings. These ideas are illustrated using a number of case studies from Europe and Africa.
Sensory Evaluation of Multiple Fortified Stock Powder
Sophia Darko
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine consumer sensory acceptability of multiple fortified stock powder in beef stew as compared to unfortified stock powder, which was used as a control. The panelists included 10 students from the Vaal University of Technology in the Republic of South Africa aged between 18 and 23 years consisting of nine females and one male, who have some knowledge of food evaluation and were also consumers of beef. The multiple fortified stock powder was classified as a functional food in the light of the addition of a range of nutrients. Ten semi-trained panelists, evaluated three differently prepared beef stew samples based on colour, flavour, off-flavour and after flavour acceptability by using a 5-point hedonic scale. Two samples were cooked for 10 min and 30 min respectively with fortified stock powder and the other sample with unfortified stock powder. The hedonic scale ranged from “unacceptable” (which was assigned the value of one), “moderately unacceptable” (value of 2), “acceptable” (value of 3),” moderately acceptable” (value of 4) and “highly acceptable” (value of 5) respectively. The results showed that multiple fortified stock powder cooked in beef stew was appreciably accepted by the semi- trained panel. Multiple fortified stock powder is comparable to ordinary stock powder in acceptability and would be accepted when introduced into the market with accompanying education. In conclusion, sensory evaluation should precede all future micronutrient food fortification programmes and multiple fortified stock powder should be promoted as a potential functional food.
Research Perspectives in the Nurse Practitioner's role in Smoking Cessation Therapy
Chan Sophia
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-3-25
Esther Leslie: "Synthetic Worlds: Nature, Art and the Chemical Industry" (book review)
Sophia Efstathiou
Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 2010,
Abstract: book review of Esther Leslie: "Synthetic Worlds: Nature, Art and the Chemical Industry"
Beckett palimpseste de Proust ou la réécriture par déni
Sophia Dachraoui
Voix Plurielles , 2010,
Abstract: On démontrera que Beckett refuse l’écriture proustienne qu’il juge stéréotypée et que, cependant, cette négation s’affirme à travers la réécriture même du texte proustien. En effet, à travers l’allusion, la transformation et l’imitation, Beckett récrit Proust d’une manière à la fois formelle et thématique en variant les modalités d’ hypertextualité . Aussi a-t-on adopté la double perspective transformationnelle et relationnelle de l’hypertextualité, telle que Genette la définit dans son livre fondateur Palimpsestes.
The Necessity to Negotiate the Syllabus in Second Chance Schools: An Innovative Approach
Sophia Valavani
Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning , 2010,
Abstract: European unification and the scale of current economic and social change has led to the construction of a multidimensional, constantly evolving environment diversifying in languages and cultures, social communities and political constitutions. The demands for the maintenance and development of such a multifarious population are thus increased. Second Chance Schools (SCSs) were established in Greece in 1999 as a special programme which offers education and training to adults “at risk of social exclusion” aiming at their social and economic integration. Diversity in SCSs demands a new approach to education and training, and the existence of multiple identities, values and cultures within SCSs challenges both trainers and trainees to cultivate mutual understanding and to promote democratic standards in order to ensure equality in education and facilitate SCS trainees’ inclusion in social, economic and cultural dimensions. This paper argues that EFL literacy in SCSs can best be developed on the basis of a negotiated syllabus which has been promoted by recent trends in educational theory as the most democratic and flexible syllabus that can offer significant opportunities for developing basic skills and qualifications and trigger processes of self-discovery, shared decision-making and responsibility. The paper draws its materials from a systematic research conducted in different SCSs in northern Greece over a period of 8 months. Adopting a mixed-method approach, I analysed data from a variety of different sources, such as official documentation, detailed questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with trainers of EFL literacy, and real time classroom observation. This paper outlines in detail the main elements of the negotiated syllabus and, on the basis of research findings, discuss why such a syllabus is appropriate to the teaching of EFL literacies. It also presents practical devices for the implementation of a negotiated syllabus, which allow the development of negotiated work in class. It concludes with some possible implications and stresses the need for further investigation.
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