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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209288 matches for " Sophia L. Sze "
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An Herbal Nasal Drop Enhanced Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity
Agnes S. Chan,Mei-chun Cheung,Sophia L. Sze,Winnie W. Leung,Dejian Shi
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep198
Abstract: The present study examined the neuro-electrophysiological activity of the brain associated with the application of a herbal remedy developed by a Shaolin monk based upon the Chan healing principle of clearing the orifices (i.e., the nasal cavities). A repeated-measures design was used. Fourteen normal adults were administered herbal remedy and saline solution intranasally on separate sessions. Two intervals of eyes-closed resting EEG data were obtained individually before and after each administration. Results showed that only the herbal remedy but not the saline solution induced elevation in cordance, an index correlated with cerebral perfusion, in the anterior brain region. In addition, the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as examined by the LORETA analysis, was also increased after the application of the herbal remedy but not saline solution. The present study provided some preliminary evidence suggesting that the herbal nasal drop enhanced the activity of the frontal lobe and ACC. Implications for the potential clinical application of the herbal remedy to treat patients with frontal lobe disorders were discussed.
Dejian Mind-Body Intervention on Depressive Mood of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Agnes S. Chan,Mei-chun Cheung,Wilson J. Tsui,Sophia L. Sze,Dejian Shi
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep043
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a short-term mind-body intervention program on improving the depressive mood of an adult community sample. Forty adult volunteers with various degrees of depressive mood were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Dejian Mind-Body Intervention, DMBI) and control group (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, CBT). For each group, a total of four 90-min weekly sessions were conducted. Treatment-related changes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), an electroencephalographic indicator of positive affect (i.e., prefrontal activation asymmetry), and self-report ratings on physical health. Results indicated that both the DMBI and the CBT group demonstrated significant reduction in depressive mood. However, among individuals with moderate to severe depressive mood at baseline, only those in the DMBI but not the CBT group showed significant reduction in depressive mood. Besides, only the DMBI group demonstrated a significant increase in prefrontal activation asymmetry, suggesting increase in positive affect. While most psychological therapies for depressive mood normally take several months to show treatment effect, the present findings provided initial data suggesting that the DMBI was effective in improving depressive mood of community adults after 1 month of training. 1. Introduction Mind-body intervention emphasizes the interaction among the brain, the mind and the body. The fundamental assumption is that individuals have internal ability to change their own thoughts and behaviors, and to enhance their emotional and physical health. The concept that the mind plays an important role in the improvement of health is a core component of traditional Chinese medicine that dates back at least 2000 years in China. With the emphasis that treatment should be holistic in nature including moral, spiritual and environmental factors, Chinese have developed different kinds of mind-body intervention including qigong, tai chi, relaxation training, thought training (e.g., Chan or Zen) and dietary modification. Although mind-body interventions have been practiced for centuries in the East, Western countries have studied this approach more extensively than the East in the past 20 years. There have been scientific and clinical studies which demonstrated the therapeutic effects of mind-body intervention in clinical and normal populations [1]. In clinical practice, an increasing number of empirical studies have reported positive effects of mind-body training on different mental and physical problems, such as
A Chan Dietary Intervention Enhances Executive Functions and Anterior Cingulate Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Agnes S. Chan,Sophia L. Sze,Yvonne M. Y. Han,Mei-chun Cheung
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/262136
Abstract: Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month) and the control (no modification) groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG) activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.
A Chinese Mind-Body Exercise Improves Self-Control of Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Agnes S. Chan, Sophia L. Sze, Nicolson Y. Siu, Eliza M. Lau, Mei-chun Cheung
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068184
Abstract: Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group) or PMR (control group) twice per week for four weeks. The participants’ self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants’ brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org.
A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults
Agnes S. Chan,Sophia L. Sze,Jean Woo,Ruby H. Yu
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00050
Abstract: This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60–83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components) were assessed before and after 3 months intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90 min session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind–body exercises, and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile) showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50 and 49% enhancement, respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre–post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population.
Dejian Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Cognitive Functions of a Child with Autism
Agnes S. Chan,Sophia L. Sze,Mei-Chun Cheung,Yvonne M. Y. Han,Winnie W. M. Leung,Dejian Shi
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/549254
Abstract: There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI), a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI) on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY) and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders.
Shaolin Dan Tian Breathing Fosters Relaxed and Attentive Mind: A Randomized Controlled Neuro-Electrophysiological Study
Agnes S. Chan,Mei-Chun Cheung,Sophia L. Sze,Winnie Wing-Man Leung,Dejian Shi
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/180704
Abstract: Neuro-electrophysiological studies on meditative breathing revealed its association with either a relaxed or an attentive state. The present study aimed to investigate whether the Shaolin Dan Tian Breathing (DTB) technique, which consists of the Passive and Active subtypes and can be considered as a relaxation exercise and Qigong, would induce both relaxed and attentive states. Twenty-two adults and 22 age-, gender- and education-matched controls received training on the Shaolin DTB (experimental group) and the progressive muscle relaxation respectively for one month. Eyes-closed resting EEG data before and immediately after each type of breathing were obtained individually at baseline and after one-month training. At baseline, the EEG changes after the Shaolin DTB between both groups were comparable. After one-month training, participants in the experimental, but not the control, group showed enhanced temporal alpha asymmetry (an index of relaxation and positive mood) after performing the Passive DTB for five minutes, and enhanced intra- and inter-hemispheric theta coherence (an index of attention and alertness) after performing the Active DTB. The present findings suggested a positive effect of the Shaolin DTB technique on enhancing human neural activity and connectivity, which may possibly enhance mood state and cognitive functions.
A Randomized Controlled Neurophysiological Study of a Chinese Chan-Based Mind-Body Intervention in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Agnes S. Chan,Yvonne M. Y. Han,Sophia L. Sze,Queenie Y. Wong,Mei-chun Cheung
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/812096
Abstract: Our previous studies have reported the therapeutic effects of 10-session Chinese Chan-based Dejian mind-body interventions (DMBI) in reducing the intake of antidepressants, improving depressive symptoms, and enhancing the attentional abilities of patients with depression. This study aims to explore the possible neuroelectrophysiological mechanisms underlying the previously reported treatment effects of DMBI in comparison with those of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Seventy-five age-, gender-, and education-matched participants with depression were randomly assigned to receive either CBT or DMBI or placed on a waitlist. Eyes-closed resting EEG data were obtained individually before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, the DMBI group demonstrated significantly enhanced frontal alpha asymmetry (an index of positive mood) and intra- and interhemispheric theta coherence in frontoposterior and posterior brain regions (an index of attention). In contrast, neither the CBT nor the waitlist group showed significant changes in EEG activity patterns. Furthermore, the asymmetry and coherence indices of the DMBI group were correlated with self-reported depression severity levels and performance on an attention test, respectively. The present findings provide support for the effects of a Chinese Chan-based mind-body intervention in fostering human brain states that can facilitate positive mood and an attentive mind. 1. Introduction Mind-body interventions focus on the interaction between the brain, the mind, and the body with the assumptions that the mind and body are interconnected and that individuals can use the mind to affect physical functioning and mental health. The use of mind-body training has received increasing interest as a complementary intervention method among psychologists and medical professionals due to its documented therapeutic effects on many psychological problems, such as anxiety [1], insomnia [2], and depression [3]. Mind-body training has also been shown to have positive effects as a complementary treatment for many physical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome [4], chronic pain [5], and cardiovascular problems [6]. Using the mind to affect physical and mental health is a core concept of traditional Chinese medicine. Studies assessing the effect of qigong, a mind-body practice from ancient China, have demonstrated that qigong can elevate mood in elderly people with depression [7] and improve the psychological wellbeing and self-efficacy of patients with chronic physical illnesses [8]. Tai Chi-, one of the best known and widely
BRCA and Early Events in the Development of Serous Ovarian Cancer
Sophia H. L. George,Patricia Shaw
Frontiers in Oncology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00005
Abstract: Women who have an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have a substantial increased lifetime risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and epidemiological factors related to parity, ovulation, and hormone regulation have a dramatic effect on the risk in both BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers. The most common and most aggressive histotype of EOC, high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), is also the histotype associated with germline BRCA mutations. In recent years, evidence has emerged indicating that the likely tissue of origin of HGSC is the fallopian tube. We have reviewed, what is known about the fallopian tube in BRCA mutation carriers at both the transcriptional and translational aspect of their biology. We propose that changes of the transcriptome in BRCA heterozygotes reflect an altered response to the ovulatory stresses from the microenvironment, which may include the post-ovulation inflammatory response and altered reproductive hormone physiology.
Optically induced spin gates in coupled quantum dots using the electron-hole exchange interaction
Sophia E. Economou,T. L. Reinecke
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.115306
Abstract: We propose a fast optically induced two-qubit \textsc{c-phase} gate between two resident spins in a pair of coupled quantum dots. An excited bound state which extends over the two dots provides an effective electron-electron exchange interaction. The gate is made possible by the electron-hole exchange interaction, which isolates a single transition in the system. When combined with appropriate single qubit rotations, this gate generates an entangled state of the two spins.
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