Abstract:
The monogamy inequality in terms of the concurrence, called the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality [Phys. Rev. A {\bf 61}, 052306 (2000)], and its generalization [T.J. Osborne and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 96}, 220503 (2006)] hold on general $n$-qubit states including mixed ones. In this paper, we consider the monogamy inequalities in terms of the fully entangled fraction and the teleportation fidelity. We show that the monogamy inequalities do not hold on general mixed states, while the inequalities hold on $n$-qubit pure states.

Abstract:
In this paper, we explicitly evaluate the one-shot quantum non-signalling assisted zero-error classical capacities $\M_0^{\mathrm{QNS}}$ for qubit channels. In particular, we show that for nonunital qubit channels, $\M_0^{\mathrm{QNS}}=1$, which implies that in the one-shot setting, nonunital qubit channels cannot transmit any information with zero probability of error even when assisted by quantum non-signalling correlations. Furthermore, we show that for qubit channels, $\M_0^{\mathrm{QNS}}$ equals to the one-shot entanglement-assisted zero-error classical capacities. This means that for a single use of a qubit channel, quantum non-signalling correlations are not more powerful than shared entanglement.

Abstract:
We exhibit a two-parameter class of states $\rho_{(\alpha,\gamma)}$, in $2\otimes n$ quantum system for $n\ge 3$, which can be obtained from an arbitrary state by means of local quantum operations and classical communication, and which are invariant under all bilateral %unitary operations %of the form $U\otimes U$ on $2\otimes n$ quantum system. We calculate the negativity of $\rho_{(\alpha,\gamma)}$, and a lower bound and a tight upper bound on its entanglement of formation. It follows from this calculation that the entanglement of formation of $\rho_{(\alpha,\gamma)}$ cannot exceed its negativity.

Abstract:
Using the convex-roof extended negativity and the negativity of assistance as quantifications of bipartite entanglement, we consider the possible remotely-distributed entanglement. For two pure states $\ket{\phi}_{AB}$ and $\ket{\psi}_{CD}$ on bipartite systems $AB$ and $CD$, we first show that the possible amount of entanglement remotely distributed on the system $AC$ by joint measurement on the system $BD$ is not less than the product of two amounts of entanglement for the states $\ket{\phi}_{AB}$ and $\ket{\psi}_{CD}$ in two-qubit and two-qutrit systems. We also provide some sufficient conditions, for which the result can be generalized into higher-dimensional quantum systems.

Abstract:
We study the explicit relation between violation of Bell inequalities and bipartite distillability of multi-qubit states. It has been shown that even though for $N\ge 8$ there exist $N$-qubit bound entangled states which violates a Bell inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 87}, 230402 (2001)], for all the states violating the inequality there exists at least one splitting of the parties into two groups such that pure-state entanglement can be distilled [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 88}, 027901 (2002)]. We here prove that for all $N$-qubit states violating the inequality the number of distillable bipartite splits increases exponentially with $N$, and hence the probability that a randomly chosen bipartite split is distillable approaches one exponentially with $N$, as $N$ tends to infinity. We also show that there exists at least one $N$-qubit bound entangled state violating the inequality if and only if $N\ge 6$.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider teleportation capability, distillability, and nonlocality on three-qubit states. In order to investigate some relations among them, we first find the explicit formulas of the quantities about the maximal teleportation fidelity on three-qubit states. We show that if any three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation then the three-qubit state is distillable into a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and that if any three-qubit state violates a specific form of Mermin inequality then the three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation.

Abstract:
We present a protocol for quantum cryptographic network consisting of a quantum network center and many users, in which any pair of parties with members chosen from the whole users on request can secure a quantum key distribution by help of the center. The protocol is based on the quantum authentication scheme given by Barnum et al. [Proc. 43rd IEEE Symp. FOCS'02, p. 449 (2002)]. We show that exploiting the quantum authentication scheme the center can safely make two parties share nearly perfect entangled states used in the quantum key distribution. This implies that the quantum cryptographic network protocol is secure against all kinds of eavesdropping.

Abstract:
We construct a quantum algorithm that performs function-dependent phase transform and requires no initialization of an ancillary register. The algorithm recovers the initial state of an ancillary register regardless of whether its state is pure or mixed. Thus we can use any qubits as an ancillary register even though they are entangled with others and are occupied by other computational process. We also show that our algorithm is optimal in the sense of the number of function evaluations.

Abstract:
We present a quantum algorithm for the f-conditioned phase transform which does not require any initialization of ancillary register. We also develop a quantum algorithm that can solve the generalized Deutsch-Jozsa problem by a single evaluation of a function.

Abstract:
We present a protocol in which two or more parties can share multipartite entanglement over noisy quantum channels. The protocol is based on the entanglement purification presented by Shor and Preskill [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000)] and the quantum teleportation via an isotropic state. We show that a nearly perfect purification implies a nearly perfect sharing of multipartite entanglement between two parties so that the protocol can assure a faithful sharing of multipartite entanglement with Shor and Preskill's proof on the entanglement purification.