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Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria
Oliver Y. Todorov,Ivan I. Iliev,Sonya K. Trifonova
Ecologia Balkanica , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms) and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%), followed by Citrobacter (15%), Enterobacter (10%) and Serratia (5%), respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50%) and Salmonella (50%).
Enhanced Satellite Cell Activity in Aging Skeletal Muscle after Manual Acupuncture-Induced Injury  [PDF]
Sonya K. Sobrian, Eric Walters
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2014.51004
Abstract:

Skeletal muscle injury stimulates normally quiescent resident satellite (stem) cells to re-enter the cell cycle and execute the myogenic program to restore muscle structure and function. Previously, we reported that manual acupuncture needling of the tibialis anterior (TA) (ST36 = Zusanli) muscle of young male rats produced focal injury and morphological changes that accompanied the presence of activated satellite cells (SC) 72 hours post-needling. To investigate whether aging TA muscle responds in a similar fashion to acupuncture needling, 17-month-old female rats were subjected to a single insertion and manual manipulation of an acupuncture needle. At 72 hours’ post-needling, hematoxylin staining of the TA revealed increased mononuclear cell infiltration that was indicative of localized injury. Moreover, this was accompanied by a four-fold increase in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen within cells of needled tissues. Heightened immunofluorescence for MyoD was found within SC in the needled muscle, which correlated with a 6- and 10-fold increase in two MyoD isoforms (~38 and 42 kDa, respectively), when analyzed by Western blotting. An additional 56 kDa MyoD immunoreactive species was observed in both needled and control muscle of the aging rats. The present study in pre-senile female rats, in conjunction with our previous study in young male rats, suggests that muscle remodeling and restructuring after injury may constitute the initial cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the benefits associated with acupuncture throughout the life-span.

Challenges Associated with Serving the Diverse Needs of American Indian Families through Current Provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act  [PDF]
Sonya Smith, Yanyi K. Djamba
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.51003
Abstract: Historical reviews of American Indian Culture reveal an indigenous population rooted in the dichotomy of societal misunderstanding and victimization. This dichotomy illustrates repeated occurrence of incidents involving the removal, assimilation or extinction of American Indian children. This analysis of the Indian Child Welfare Act focuses on the heart of American Indian culture which is the well-being of American Indian children. Information used in this paper comes from the review of literature, census data and oral narratives obtained through a convenience sample of American Indian people interviewed in Alabama. The results of this study reveal the diversity of American Indian people seen throughout the United States, as well as in the state of Alabama. Unfortunately, the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act are only intended for American Indian children from federally recognized tribes and exclude American Indian children from state recognized tribes. This study concludes with a discussion of the contributions and limitations of the Indian Child Welfare Act and calls for expanded services to serve all American Indian populations in the United States.
Warehousing and OLAP Analysis of Bibliographic Data  [PDF]
Tsvetanka Georgieva-Trifonova
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2011.35023
Abstract: In this paper, the system bgMath/OLAP for warehousing and online analytical processing bibliographic data is proposed. The implemented system can be useful for the users maintaining their electronic libraries with publications in order to monitoring, evaluating and comparing the scientific development of particular researchers, entire research groups, certain scientific fields and problems.
Past and recent trends in the western Black Sea storminess
N. N. Valchev,E. V. Trifonova,N. K. Andreeva
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-961-2012
Abstract: Storms are one of the most important phenomena producing coastal hazards and endangering human life and activities. In recent decades storm climate has become a subject of increased public awareness and knowledge of this issue can help the society to meet future challenges related to extreme storm manifestation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to assess trends in past and recent storminess in the western Black Sea. The analysis of storm climate is based on a continuous hindcast dataset covering a substantial historical time-span of 63 yr (1948–2010). It was used to create a storm population and to estimate properties describing storminess (proxies). This was done by introduction of criteria allowing separation of events with low probability of occurrence and at the same time keeping the information on their pattern, i.e. properties of storm phases. Eleven storminess proxies were analysed and the most indicative appeared to be storm duration; integral, mean and specific storm wave energy; and wind velocity and direction, which were obtained for each storm season. While experiencing significant variability on a quasi-decadal scale, no significant upward or downward trends in storminess were detected. For almost all proxies, an increasing trend until the 1980s or the 1990s and a return to average or even calm conditions in the late 2000s are traceable. On this background, a steady although not significant increase of wind velocity was detected. Results also indicate an alteration of storm pattern, manifested as shortening of storm duration due to a shift of the prevailing direction of storm forcing winds to the north. Nevertheless, incident wave energy in the storms' most intense phase remains significant. The obtained results are discussed with regard to the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the hydrometeorological pattern of the Black Sea region as a part of the European-Atlantic area, in particular with respect to the cyclonic activity.
Peculiarities of Heavy Metals Accumulation by the Plants of Meadow Phytocenosis  [PDF]
Тatyana А. Trifonova, Ekaterina Y. Alkhutova
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.23033
Abstract: This work is devoted to studying of the accumulation peculiarities of heavy metals (HM) by the meadow phytocenosis plants and also plants phytomeliotating properties at various levels of soil contamination. The system “cespitose-podsol soil – meadow vegetation” has been chosen as a research object. Heavy metals as a kind of industrial waste-galvanic slurry enriched by zinc amounting 79.7% of all HM detected in the slurry-was introduced into the soil. Heavy metals content and redistribution in soil at various amount of galvanic slurry, quantitative and specific content of phytocenosis, heavy metals accumulation in the meadow vegetation crop at various contamination layers have been studied during research. Among the researched phytocenosis the groups of plants with high and low heavy metals accumulation capacity have been defined. Cirsium arvense, Capsella bursapastoris, Artemisia vulgarus and Rumex confertus belonged to the group accumulating several heavy metals in considerable amounts without significant phytomass loss. The majority of these plants possess developed phytomass and their ability to accumulate heavy metals in large amount allows using them as phytomeliorants for soil decontamination at the final stages of reclaiming.
The iconographical type of saints Theodore Teron and Theodore Stratelates facing each other and its diffusion during the Byzantine and post-Byzantine period
Trifonova Alexandra
Zograf , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/zog1034053t
Abstract: The paper deals with the iconographical type of saint Theodore Stratelates and saint Theodor Teron facing each other. The author focuses on its appearance, its flourishing, as well as its diffusion, which is seen mainly in the area of Macedonia and in the Balkans.
Urban sociocultural potential: methods, estimations and models in the centres of national regions of Russia Социокультурный потенциал города: методика определения, результаты оценки и модели использования в центрах национальных регионов России
Zoya Trifonova
Cultural Geography & Geohumanities , 2012,
Abstract: The methods and procedures helpful to estimate urban sociocultural potential are suggested in the article. The centres of national regions of Russia are divided into several groups according to ethnic diversity and modernization level. Some models of social and cultural integration of these cities into the cultural space of Russia are described. В статье описана методика определения индикаторов, позволяющих выявить специфику социокультурного потенциала центров национальных регионов России. Предложена группировка столиц по признаку этнической мозаичности и модернизационным характеристикам. Выявлены различные модели интеграции социокультурного потенциала исследуемых городов в культурное пространство России.
Rapid recovery of serratus anterior muscle function after microneurolysis of long thoracic nerve injury
Rahul K Nath, Sonya E Melcher
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1749-7221-2-4
Abstract: Serratus anterior function was restored through decompression, neurolysis, and tetanic electrical stimulation of the long thoracic nerve. This included partial release of constricting middle scalene fibers and microneurolysis of epineurium and perineurium of the long thoracic nerve under magnification. Abduction angle was measured on the day before and the day following surgery.In this retrospective study of 13 neurolysis procedures of the long thoracic nerve, abduction is improved by 10% or greater within one day of surgery. The average improvement was 59° (p < 0.00005). Patients had been suffering from winging scapula for 2 months to 12 years. The improvement in abduction is maintained at last follow-up, and winging is also reduced.In a notable number of cases, decompression and neurolysis of the long thoracic nerve leads to rapid improvements in winging scapula and the associated limitations on shoulder movement. The duration of the injury and the speed of improvement lead us to conclude that axonal channel defects can potentially exist that do not lead to Wallerian degeneration and yet cause a clear decrease in function.Scapular winging due to injury of the long thoracic nerve (LTN) can have significant and debilitating effects on arm mobility. The serratus anterior muscle, innervated by the LTN, is responsible for stabilizing the scapula against the thoracic wall. Additionally, during abduction of the arm, the scapula is moved and stabilized by the serratus anterior to allow the humeral head to rotate. In studies of scapulothoracic motion, an increasing angle of humeral elevation correlates with increasing serratus anterior contraction[1,2]. Patients with injury of the LTN may be unable to abduct and flex the arm into upward rotation above 90° at the shoulder, and this is exacerbated when significant weight is added. This functional problem does not always resolve upon conservative treatment with physical therapy, and the literature is unclear on the role of th
Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol
Sonya K. Sobrian,R. R. Holson
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00066
Abstract: Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.
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