Abstract:
Several calculations in conformally static spacetimes rely on the introduction of an ultrastatic background. I describe the general properties of ultrastatic spacetimes, and then focus on the problem of whether a given spacetime can be ultrastatic, or conformally ultrastatic, in more than one way. I show that the first possibility arises iff the spacetime is a product containing a Minkowskian factor, and that the second arises iff the spatial sections are conformal to a product space.

Abstract:
physiological and enviromental factors acelerate deterioration of flowers after the harvest. use of adequate conservation technology increase the life of flowers after harvest. this review analyses postharvest deterioration causes and discuss the main technics that can delay senescence and increase conservation of cut flowers and potted plants.

Abstract:
We lay down the foundations of particle dynamics in mechanical theories that satisfy the relativity principle and whose kinematics can be formulated employing reference frames of the type usually adopted in special relativity. Such mechanics allow for the presence of anisotropy, both conventional (due to non-standard synchronisation protocols) and real (leading to detectable chronogeometrical effects, independent of the choice of synchronisation). We give a general method for finding the fundamental dynamical quantities (Lagrangian, energy and momentum), and write their explicit expression in all the kinematics compatible with the basic requirements. We also write the corresponding dispersion relations and outline a formulation of these theories in terms of a pseudo-Finslerian spacetime geometry. Although the treatment is restricted to the case of one spatial dimension, an extension to three dimensions is almost straightforward.

Abstract:
We address the problem of observables in generally invariant spacetime theories such as Einstein's general relativity. Using the refined notion of an event as a ``point-coincidence'' between scalar fields that completely characterise a spacetime model, we propose a generalisation of the relational local observables that does not require the existence of four everywhere invertible scalar fields. The collection of all point-coincidences forms in generic situations a four-dimensional manifold, that is naturally identified with the physical spacetime.

Abstract:
We investigate the interplay and connections between symmetry properties of equations, the interpretation of coordinates, the construction of observables, and the existence of physical relativity principles in spacetime theories. Using the refined notion of an event as a ``point-coincidence'' between scalar fields that completely characterise a spacetime model, we also propose a natural generalisation of the relational local observables that does not require the existence of four everywhere invertible scalar fields. The collection of all point-coincidences forms in generic situations a four-dimensional manifold, that is naturally identified with the physical spacetime.

Abstract:
The tail problem for the propagation of a scalar field is considered in a cosmological background, taking a Robertson-Walker spacetime as a specific example. The explicit radial dependence of the general solution of the Klein-Gordon equation with nonminimal coupling is derived, and the inapplicability of the standard calculation of the reflection and transmission coefficients to the study of scattering of waves by the cosmological curvature is discussed.

Abstract:
Diffeomorphism freedom induces a gauge dependence in the theory of spacetime perturbations. We derive a compact formula for gauge transformations of perturbations of arbitrary order. To this end, we develop the theory of Taylor expansions for one-parameter families (not necessarily groups) of diffeomorphisms. First, we introduce the notion of knight diffeomorphism, that generalises the usual concept of flow, and prove a Taylor's formula for the action of a knight on a general tensor field. Then, we show that any one-parameter family of diffeomorphisms can be approximated by a family of suitable knights. Since in perturbation theory the gauge freedom is given by a one-parameter family of diffeomorphisms, the expansion of knights is used to derive our transformation formula. The problem of gauge dependence is a purely kinematical one, therefore our treatment is valid not only in general relativity, but in any spacetime theory.

Abstract:
We generalise a recent derivation of the relativistic expressions for momentum and kinetic energy from the one-dimensional to the three-dimensional case.

Abstract:
We present a new derivation of the expressions for momentum and energy of a relativistic particle. In contrast to the procedures commonly adopted in textbooks, the one suggested here requires only the knowledge of the composition law for velocities along one spatial dimension, and does not make use of the concept of relativistic mass, or of the formalism of four-vectors. The basic ideas are very general and can be applied also to kinematics different from the Newtonian and Einstein ones, in order to construct the corresponding dynamics.

Abstract:
It is shown that quantum particle detectors are not reliable probes of spacetime structure. In particular, they fail to distinguish between inertial and non-inertial motion in a general spacetime. To prove this, we consider detectors undergoing circular motion in an arbitrary static spherically symmetric spacetime, and give a necessary and sufficient condition for the response function to vanish when the field is in the static vacuum state. By examining two particular cases, we show that there is no relation, in general, between the vanishing of the response function and the fact that the detector motion is, or is not, geodesic. In static asymptotically flat spacetimes, however, all rotating detectors are excited in the static vacuum. Thus, in this particular case the static vacuum appears to be associated with a non-rotating frame. The implications of these results for the equivalence principle are considered. In particular, we discuss how to properly formulate the principle for particle detectors, and show that it is satisfied.