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The Development of Training Packages Environment Education on Solid Waste in Community for Village Health Volunteer in Amphoe Muang Sakon Nakhon
Somchoke Sriharuksa,Adisak Singseewo,Ponlakit Jitto
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2011.45.50
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate as follows, to study the operations and management of the problems regarding solid wastes. To develop the training packages environment education on solid wastes in the local community for village health volunteers. Also to evaluate the efficiency of the 80/80 criterion and efficiency index. To compare the knowledge, the participatory action and the skills of operations before and after the training by using the training packages environment education on the topic of solid wastes in the local community. Regarding the village health community volunteers, they are categorized into age groups, working experience and the site of location of work. To study and compare the differences of knowledge, the participatory action and the skills of operations by village health community volunteers. And the impact of the solid wastes in the community specifically demographics. To study the satisfaction of village health community volunteers who have been trained by using the training packages environment education. The samples size of village health community volunteers are 53 who were selected by cluster random sampling method. The research kit was composed of questionnaires which consisted of knowledge questions, participatory questions and operational skills questions and also the scale for the evaluation of satisfaction. The statistic in this research are descriptive and inferential statistics which are pair t-test and F-test (one way Mancova). The result of this research was found that the daily production of solid wastes is 55 tons and the production rate is 0.94 kg/person/day. The most popular wastes are organic and the second is recycled wastes and wastes in general. The efficiency of the training packages environment education is 90.61/89.90 which is higher than the requirement of the setting up criterion of 80/80 and the index of training is equal to 0.6030. After the efficiency of the training course, the village health volunteers can show that there is an increase of knowledge and participants skills and skills of the operations, individually and overall. The increasing levels are highly significant in statistic (p<0.05). After the training, the result showed that the knowledge, the participatory action and the operational skills of the village health volunteers who have different ages, different work experience and different demographics have no differences. The satisfaction of the village community health volunteers who were trained by using the training packages environment education for solid wastes in community are at the highest level. Therefore, this training packages environment education is effective and can create knowledge, the participation and the operational skills of the village community health volunteers can show the prototype model which can be used in the future of solid waste management.
Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant
Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit,Charoon Klaichoi,Nattadon Rungruangkitkrai,Nattaya Punrattanasin,Kamolkan Sriharuksa,Monthon Nakpathom
Journal of Textiles , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/423842
Abstract: Natural dyes from Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin were applied to silk fabric by pad-batch and pad-dry techniques under different conditions. Ferrous sulfate was used as a mordant. The dyeing properties were evaluated by measuring K/S and CIELAB values. In addition, the different fastness properties were evaluated. The effect of dyes at different concentration levels with respect to their colour strength was also studied. 1. Introduction Natural dyes are comprised of dyes and pigments that are obtained from various parts of plants including roots, bark, leaves, flowers, and fruit [1]. The major applications are coloring of food, leather, wood, and natural fibers like wool, silk, cotton, and flax. Natural dyes may have a wide range of shades. Dyeing with natural dyes, however, normally requires the use of mordants, which are metallic salts of aluminum, iron, chromium, and copper, among others, to ensure a reasonable color fastness to sunlight and washing [2]. The metal ions of these mordants can act as electron acceptors for electron donors to form coordination bonds with the dye molecules, making them insoluble in water [3]. Lately, there has been increasing interest in natural dyes, as the public is becoming more aware of the ecological and environmental problems related to the use of synthetic dyes. The use of natural dyes cuts down significantly on the amount of toxic effluent resulting from synthetic dye processes. Natural dyes have also been used for printing and dye-sensitized solar cells [4–7]. Alongside their aesthetic qualities, natural dyes may offer other benefits, being antibacterial, deodorizing, and UV protective [8–14]. The use of natural dyes in textile applications is growing rapidly, reflecting the strict environmental standards being established in many countries, and the concern about the health hazards associated with synthetic dyes, for example, the recent ban on the use of azo dyes by the European Union, has also increased the scope for the use of natural dyes [15]. Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of natural dye, yielding several yellowish-brown colorant. Eucalyptus has ample natural tannins and polyphenols ranging from 10% to 12% [16]. The major coloring component of Eucalyptus bark is quercetin, which is also an antioxidant. It has been used as a food dye with strong antioxidant properties [17]. Eucalyptus leaves contain up to 11% of the major components of tannin (gallic acid and ellagic acid) with flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, etc.) as minor substances [18–20]. Tannins and flavonoids are
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