Abstract:
We propose novel multi-phase-matched process that starts with generation of a pair of symmetric second-harmonic waves. Each of them interacts again with the fundamental wave to produce two constructively interfering third harmonic waves collinear to the fundamental input wave.

Abstract:
The near-field interaction of an atom with a dielectric surface is inversely proportional to the cube to the distance to the surface, and its coupling strength depends on a dielectric image coefficient. This coefficient, simply given in a pure electrostatic approach by (eps-1) / (eps+1) with eps the permittivity, is specific to the frequency of each of the various relevant atomic transition : it depends in a complex manner from the bulk material properties, and can exhibit resonances connected to the surface polariton modes. We list here the surface resonances for about a hundred of optical windows whose bulk properties are currently tabulated. The study concentrates on the infrared domain because it is the most relevant for atom-surface interaction. Aside from this tabulation, we discuss simple hints to estimate the position of surface resonances, and how uncertainties in the bulk data for the material dramatically affect the predictions for the image coefficient. We also evaluate the contribution of UV resonances of the material to the non resonant part of the image coefficient.

Abstract:
We introduce a novel class of parametric optical solitons supported simultaneously by two second-order nonlinear cascading processes, second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency mixing. We obtain, analytically and numerically, the solutions for three-wave spatial solitons and show that the presence of an additional cascading mechanism can change dramatically the properties and stability of two-wave quadratic solitary waves.

Abstract:
We present a comprehensive overview of different types of parametric interactions in nonlinear optics which are associated with simultaneous phase-matching of several optical processes in quadratic nonlinear media, the so-called multistep parametric interactions. We discuss a number of possibilities of double and multiple phase-matching in engineered structures with the sign-varying second-order nonlinear susceptibility, including (i) uniform and non-uniform quasi-phase-matched (QPM) periodic optical superlattices, (ii) phase-reversed and periodically chirped QPM structures, and (iii) uniform QPM structures in non-collinear geometry, including recently fabricated two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic photonic crystals. We also summarize the most important experimental results on the multi-frequency generation due to multistep parametric processes, and overview the physics and basic properties of multi-color optical parametric solitons generated by these parametric interactions.

Abstract:
We introduce the concept of two-color multistep cascading for vectorial parametric wave mixing in optical media with quadratic (second-order or chi-2) nonlinear response. We demonstrate that the multistep cascading allows light-guiding-light effects with quadratic spatial solitons. With the help of the so-called `almost exact' analytical solutions, we describe the properties of parametric waveguides created by two-wave quadratic solitons.

Abstract:
The velocity distribution of atoms in a thermal gas is usually described through a Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of energy, and assumes isotropy. As a consequence, the probability for an atom to leave the surface under an azimuth angle {\theta} should evolve as cos {\theta}, in spite of the fact that there is no microscopic basis to justify such a law. The contribution of atoms moving at a grazing incidence towards or from the surface, i.e. atoms with a small normal velocity, here called "slow" atoms, reveals essential in the development of spectroscopic methods probing a dilute atomic vapor in the vicinity of a surface, enabling a sub-Doppler resolution under a normal incidence irradiation. The probability for such "slow" atoms may be reduced by surface roughness and atom-surface interaction. Here, we describe a method to observe and to count these slow atoms relying on a mechanical discrimination, through spatially separated pump and probe beams. We also report on our experimental progresses toward such a goal.

Abstract:
We generate conical second-harmonic radiation by transverse excitation of a two-dimensional annular periodically-poled nonlinear photonic structure with a fundamental Gaussian beam. We show that these conical waves are the far-field images of the Bessel beams generated in a crystal by parametric frequency conversion assisted by nonlinear Bragg diffraction.

Abstract:
We apply the concept of multistep cascading to the problem of fourth-harmonic generation in a single quadratic crystal. We analyze a new model of parametric wave mixing and describe its stationary solutions for two- and three-color plane waves and spatial solitons. Some applications to the optical frequency division as well as the realization of the double-phase-matching processes in engineered QPM structures with phase reversal sequences are also discussed.

Abstract:
The principle of coherent Dicke narrowing in a thin vapour cell, in which sub-Doppler spectral lineshapes are observed under a normal irradiation for a l/2 thickness, is generalized to two-photon spectroscopy. Only the sum of the two wave vectors must be normal to the cell, making the two-photon scheme highly versatile. A comparison is provided between the Dicke narrowing with copropagating fields, and the residual Doppler-broadening occurring with counterpropagating geometries. The experimental feasibility is discussed on the basis of a first observation of a two-photon resonance in a 300 nm-thick Cs cell. Extension to the Raman situation is finally considered.

Abstract:
The temperature behaviour in the range 22\degree C to 500\degree C of the dielectric permittivity in the infrared range is investigated for CaF2, BaF2 and Al2O3 through reflectivity measurements. The dielectric permittivity is retrieved by fitting reflectivity spectra with a model taking into account multiphonon contributions. The results extrapolated from the measurements are applied to predict a temperature-dependent atom-surface van der Waals interaction. We specifically consider as the atom of interest Cs (8P3/2), the most relevant virtual couplings of which, fall in the range of thermal radiation and are located in the vicinity of the reststrahlen band of fluoride materials.