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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1393 matches for " Solomon Estifanos Bekele "
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Parkland Agroforestry of Ethiopia; Key to Production, Productivity, Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Mitigation: A Review  [PDF]
Solomon Estifanos Bekele
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84030
Abstract: Compiled information on parkland agroforestry tree species in relation to diversity, tree management options and the challenges of the system is important for production and productivity, and biodiversity conservation through availing the required information which in turn has an implication to the sustainability of the system and climate change mitigation. So, the aim of this review paper is to compile information on parkland agroforestry practices of Ethiopia, particularly: on tree species diversity, their roles, management options available and challenges of the practice. Parkland agroforestry which is a system practiced by many local populations comprises the large part of agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia and is very important in different aspects such as; for food security, microclimate amelioration, economic benefits, environmental protection, household energy, household utensils, cultural values, traditional medicines, and fodder. There are many indigenous multipurpose tree species scattered on farmlands in Ethiopia, and the common one includes: Millettia ferruginea, Cordia africana, Ficus vasta, Ficus sur, Croton macrostachyus and Faidherbia albida. However, nowadays these trees are facing challenges like: expansion of exotic trees in the expense of the native ones, expansion of cash crops through removal of the parkland trees from the farm area, climate change, land shortage and tenure system which require high emphasis for the production and productivity as well as sustainability of the system especially, in this era of climate change; hence this system is one of climate change mitigation options.
Investigating the Distribution of Selected Major and Trace Metals in Lithogenic Environment near Cement Factory, Mekelle, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Samuel Estifanos
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.52018

Sixteen physicochemical parameters including four major and ten trace metals were analyzed for seven top soil and six top stream sediment samples collected around the vicinity of cement factory in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Water and aqua regia extraction techniques were deployed to determine the water soluble and near total concentration of the metals in the samples. Water extraction results verified the magnitude of loading of the metals from anthropogenic sources. The mean values of the water soluble metals are found to exceed the reference values except for Ca and Zn in both lithogenic media indicating the severity of pollution. Spatial distribution of the metals suggested that cement factory dust and traffic emissions represent the most important pollutant sources for the investigated area.  The mean proportion of the major and trace metals in the water soluble phase of soil can be put on a descending order as: Mg (57.76%) > Fe > Ca > K > Na > Mn (3.77%) and Mo (53.17%) > Cu > Co > As > Ni > Zn > Pb

Psychosocial problems among students in preparatory school, in Dessie town, north east Ethiopia
Solomon Shiferaw, Mesganaw Fantahun, Abeba Bekele
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: The family environment is critical in supporting a healthy adolescent development. With the establishment of preparatory schools, many students of school age move from rural areas to nearby towns leading to changes in their living arrangement and possibly family connectedness. However, whether this phenomenon predisposes adolescents to greater psychosocial problems is not clear. Objective: This study assesses differential vulnerabilities of preparatory school adolescents to psychosocial problems with reference to their living arrangement and parental attachment. Method: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 667(512 male and 155 female) preparatory school students in Dessie town, north east Ethiopia in 2004 using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Qualitative information was also obtained from four focus group discussions. Result: Approximately a quarter of the students included in the study reported feeling of sadness which made them stop performing some regular activities. Six percent of the adolescents also reported having attempted suicide in the 12 months preceding the study. The study revealed that lower family connectedness and having a living arrangement separate from both biological parents (or living with friends, relatives or alone) were associated with increased odds of having a depressive symptom after controlling for observed covariates. Suicide attempts reported in the 12 months preceding the study were linked to having a history of suicide attempt in the family or among friends, female gender and sexual activity but not with family connectedness. Conclusions: The findings indicate that the burden of psychosocial concerns including depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts are high and living with both biological parents and good parent-teen connectedness are related to better psychosocial health. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 47-55
Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study
Tsedeke Asaminew, Yeshigeta Gelaw, Sisay Bekele, Berhan Solomon
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075693
Abstract: Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.
Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment by Partial Geochemical Extraction Technique
S Estifanos
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2013,
Abstract: Mn and Fe oxides are powerful absorbents of heavy metal cations in soils and stream sediments therefore considered in this environmental geochemical investigation. Steam sediment samples were collected from Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralized areas of the Rodalquilar old gold mine, located in the southeastern part of Spain. Total and partial chemical analyses were done, using aquaregia and hydroxylamine-hydrochloric acid solutions, respectively to examine preferential concentration of Zn, Pb and Cu in amorphous and ore mineral phases. The results show scavenging association of Pb, Zn and Cu with Mn that is shown by their concentrations in amorphous phases as detected by partial extractions,
Prevalence of Haemoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Working Donkeys in Adigudem and Kwiha Districts of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia
Berhanu Mekibib,Mesfin Manegerew,Abebayehu Tadesse,Fufa Abuna,Bekele Megersa,Alemayehu Regassa,Solomon Mekuria,Rahmeto Abebe
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.2249.2255
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2008-March 2009 in Adigudem and Kwiha districts in Tigray regional state, with the objectives of identifying the prevalence of haemoparasites and the associated risk factors in working donkeys. Blood samples were collected from a total 400 randomly selected donkeys and examined by dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique and Giemsa stained blood smears. The overall prevalence of haemoparasites was found to be 2.5% (n = 10) without significant variation between the two districts (p>0.05). Two genera of haemoparasites namely Babesia and Trypansomes were observed with the prevalence of 1.75% (n = 7) and 0.75 % (n = 3), respectively. Two species of Babesia were identified: Babesia equi (71.43%) and Babesia caballi (28.6%) while Trypanosoma vivax was the only trypanosome encountered during the study period. No significant association was observed between the prevalence of either of the two haemoparasites and the hypothesized risk factors (study area, sex, age and body condition score) (p>0.05 for all factors). The mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of trypanosome infected donkeys (20.67±4.04) was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of non-infected donkeys (28.68±5.73); however, no significant difference was observed between Babesia positive and Babesia free animals (p>0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of haemoparasites observed in the current study is generally low compared to previous studies. As the present study design was a cross-sectional one that only depicts a momentary picture of the infection status in the herd, a further longitudinal study that makes use of molecular techniques is recommended.
Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Camels in and Around Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia
Omer Mohammed,Bekele Megersa,Rahmeto Abebe,Mesele Abera,Alemayehu Regassa,Yunus Abdrehman,Solomon Mekuria
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.1177.1183
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2009-April 2010 to estimate seroprevalence of Brucella infection in camels and to identify risk factors associated with brucellosis infection in camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Dire Dawa city administration. A total number of 573 camels in 88 herds were sampled during study period. Out of these, 264 were females while 309 were male camels. All serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmation were made using Compliment Fixation Test (CFT). Accordingly, 9 were seropositive out of the 11 RBPT reactors. The overall seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in camels was 1.6%. Seroprevalence analysis against associated risk factor showed no significant difference (p>0.05) except reproductive disorder where abortion showed significant difference (p<0.05). In addition, camels that co-exist with small ruminants showed slight statistical difference (p = 0.05). During blood sample collection owners showed that as they have no awareness about zoonotic importance of the disease. The owner drink raw milk and all animal owners did not take care of retained fetal membrane and aborted fetuses. Camel brucellosis was found to be well spread in the study area and the management practices and the tradition of using animal products warrant serious endanger of the society to Brucella infection.
Inactivated Vaccine Trial of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Legesse Bekele, Temesgen Assefa
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.86009
Abstract: The study and entire laboratory works were conducted from December 2014 to April 2015 in National Veterinary Institute, Bishoftu, Ethiopia. Formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) trial vaccine strain was confirmed the identity with known primer using PCR from locally isolates of National Veterinary Institute of Ethiopia. This study was aimed to develop formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based MG vaccine in Ethiopia. It can help to device strategies in controlling the disease mainly through developing more effective vaccine which will replace the currently being imported vaccines by some farms. After culturing procedure, oil based inactivated MG trial vaccine was produced in suitable clean and secure accommodation. In this study, among different isolates, local isolate of Samuel farm in NVI was prepared and evaluated in chickens. The amount of immune antigen per 0.5 ml of the dose was 107 Colony forming units (CFU) of the bacteria. The trail vaccine was prepared and evaluated at the age of 16 weeks of chickens; the chickens were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C), each having twenty birds (10 male and 10 female). Each of group B was vaccinated group of imported-live vaccine with 30 μl intraocularly for comparing with inactivated trial vaccine, each bird of group C was inoculated with 0.5 ml indigenous or trial vaccine subcutaneously at mid neck region and group A was used as a control then challenge tests were performed. After challenge test, among non-vaccinated chickens (control or group A) 2 chickens were died (10%), thicken and cloudy appearance of the air sac showed 18 (90%), 2 chickens were not showed thickened and cloudy air sack (10%). Although among vaccinated group (inactivated vaccine or group C), all chickens did not show clinical signs or post mortem changes (100%). From attenuated imported live vaccine (group B), no clinical signs or post mortem changes were observed (100%). It was concluded that oil based MG vaccine induces protective level of anti MG antibodies in chickens.
Mycobacterial and nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A prospective, cohort study
Bekele Afessa
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-1-1
Abstract: The study included 1,225 consecutive hospital admissions of 599 HIV-infected patients treated from April 1995 through March 1998. Data included demographics, risk factors for HIV infection, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, pulmonary complications, CD4+ lymphocyte count, hospital stay and case-fatality rate.Patient age (mean ± SD) was 38.2 ± 8.9 years, 62% were men, and 84% were African American. The median APACHE II score was 14, and median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 60/μL. Pulmonary complications were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (85) in 78 patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (51) in 38, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (40) in 35, Mycobacterium gordonae (11) in 11, Mycobacterium kansasii (10) in 9, Cytomegalovirus (10) in 10, Nocardia asteroides (3) in 3, fungus ball (2) in 2, respiratory syncytial virus (1), herpes simplex virus (1), Histoplasma capsulatum (1), lymphoma (3) in 3, bronchogenic carcinoma (2) in 2, and Kaposi sarcoma (1). The case-fatality rate of patients was 11% with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 5%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 6%, Mycobacterium avium complex; and 7%, noninfectious pulmonary complications.Most pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with HIV are from Pneumocystis and mycobacterial infection.Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, pulmonary complications have been major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection [1]. In addition to the common pulmonary diseases affecting immunocompetent individuals, HIV seropositive patients are prone to other infectious and noninfectious complications. The types of pulmonary complications that develop depend on the degree of immunosuppression, HIV transmission category, and geographic location. Antiretroviral therapy and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis have improved the clinical course and outcome of HIV-infected patients. However, pulmonary complica
Conflicts between Afar Pastoralists and their Neighbors: Triggers and Motivations
Bekele Hundie
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2010,
Abstract: Particularly pervasive violent conflicts in the Horn of Africa have detrimental effects on people's livelihoods there. While the intensity, causes, and repercussions of violent conflicts vary spatially and temporally, pastoral areas are currently the hotspots. This paper examines the causes and consequences of violent conflicts in Ethiopia between Afar pastoralists and two of their neighbors, the Issa and the Karrayyu. The findings are based on primary data (individual interviews, group discussions, and field observations) and secondary data (documents and publications) collected in 2005 and 2006. The results indicate that contemporary challenges such as recurrent droughts, resource appropriation, livestock raiding, proliferation of small arms, and illicit trade contribute to the perpetuation of violent conflicts. While traditional institutions manage inter-clan conflicts, their effectiveness is quite limited with regard to inter-ethnic conflicts, where the contemporary challenges in pastoral areas are too diverse and complex to be managed solely by traditional institutions. The perpetuation of violent conflicts has affected the livelihoods of pastoralists, thereby causing humanitarian crisis and limiting access to resources and opportunities.
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