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Further observations on scorpion genera Hadrurus and Hoffmannihadrurus (Scorpiones, Caraboctonidae)
Michael Soleglad,Victor Fet
ZooKeys , 2010, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.59.546
Abstract: Multiple populations of Hadrurus pinteri from Baja California Sur, Mexico have been examined. It is demonstrated that the southern populations of this species have a larger number of accessory trichobothria (neobothriotaxy) than the northern populations, numbers exceeding the maximum currently recorded for the genus. Examination of carapace and chela coloration and its patterns show a close affinity between Hadrurus pinteri and the dark phase of Hadrurus concolorous. A new morphometric ratio of the carapace is defined that distinguishes Hadrurus from Hoffmannihadrurus, further supporting the monophyly of the latter genus.
The scorpion sternum: structure and phylogeny (Scorpiones: Orthosterni).
Soleglad, M.E.,Fet, V.
Euscorpius , 2003,
Abstract: The structure of the sternum of all major Recent scorpion groups is analyzed in detail. Based on this analysis, two fundamental sternum types are identified, described and illustrated, type 1 and type 2. These sternum types are distinguished by criteria based on external and internal structural features. The sternum types described herein are offered as a replacement for the various characterizations used throughout the last 140 years which emphasize only gross overall shape and proportions. Phylogenetic and taxonomic ramifications of these new sternal types are discussed.The Carboniferous fossil scorpion Palaeopisthacanthus schucherti Petrunkevitch is assigned to sternum type 1. The type 1 sternum is also assigned to the three primitive Recent scorpion groups, the pseudochactids, the buthoids, and the chaerilids. Sternum type 2 is defined for the remaining scorpion groups, those complying with Type C orthobothriotaxy. Based on these assignments, sternum type 1 is considered primitive. Within these two basic sternal types a hypothesis of horizontal and vertical compression is offered as a cause-effect for the unique sterna of the buthoid and bothriurid scorpions.
Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy – a cladistic approach.
Soleglad, M.E.,Fet, V.
Euscorpius , 2001,
Abstract: This study presents a cladistic analysis of the derivation of orthobothriotaxic patterns in scorpions. Included in thisanalysis are the original three orthobothriotaxic patterns defined by Vachon (1972, 1974), the pattern of the uniquescorpion Pseudochactas ovchinnikovi Gromov, 1998, and two trichobothrial patterns of fossil scorpions, the UpperCarboniferous palaeopisthacanthids and the Lower Cretaceous archaeobuthids. An overview of all fossil scorpionmaterial where trichobothria are reported is presented in detail. The approach used in this analysis is to model theexistence of an individual trichobothrium, adopting the ‘absence of’, ‘petite size’ and ‘full size’ as incrementalstages of a trichobothrium’s development. Of particular interest is the phylogenetic placement of Pseudochactaswithin Recent scorpions, for which the results of this study provide preliminary insight. Phylogenetic results of thisanalysis, based entirely on the derivation of orthobothriotaxic patterns, show that Archaeobuthus is the plesiomorphicsister group of all Recent scorpions, placed between the ancient palaeopisthacanthids and Recent scorpions.Within Recent scorpions, the clades ‘buthids + pseudochactids’ and ‘chaerilids + Type C’ are strongly endorsed bythis analysis. Formal orthobothriotaxic types are defined for the palaeopisthacanthids (Type P), representing the earliestknown complete fundamental trichobothrial pattern, and the pseudochactids (Type D), the fourth fundamentalpattern for Recent scorpions.
Etudes on iurids, IV. Observations on Calchas gruberi from Megisti Island, Greece (Scorpiones: Iuridae).
Stathi, Iasmi,Fet, Victor,Soleglad, Michael E.
Euscorpius , 2010,
Abstract: A series of Calchas specimens from the Greek island of Megisti (= Kastelorizo) was examined. It is shown by detailed analysis of several key diagnostic characters that this population from Megisti Island belongs to C. gruberi Fet, Soleglad et Kova ík, 2009. Therefore, C. nordmanni Birula, 1899 is not present in Greek fauna. The population of C. gruberi from Megisti comprises the largest specimens so far reported.
Morphology analysis supports presence of more than one species in the “Euscorpius carpathicus” complex (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae).
Fet, V.,Soleglad, M.E.
Euscorpius , 2002,
Abstract: We investigate a number of scorpion populations from southern and central Europe, commonly classified under a“catch-all” name of Euscorpius carpathicus (L., 1767). This species includes a high number of described subspeciesbut its composition is not resolved. The detailed morphology analysis in the present paper includes a number of newcharacters, in particular individually mapped external patellar accessory trichobothria. It suggests that several clearlyseparated lineages are present. E. carpathicus (L.) is restricted here to geographically marginal populations fromRomania (terra typica), which exhibit loss of one trichobothrium in the patellar series em (= 3). Another lineage(Austria, Croatia, Italy, France, Slovenia) is characterized here as E. tergestinus (C.L. Koch, 1837); it has a “standard”trichobothrial number in the patellar series eb (= 4), eba (= 4) and em (= 4) and exhibits only variation in theventral and et series. This species includes as new synonyms the following seven subspecies described by Caporiacco(1950): E. c. apuanus, E. c. concinnus, E. c. niciensis, E. c. aquilejensis, E. c. picenus, E. c. oglasae, and E. c.corsicanus. A very distinct Balkan lineage is delineated based on unique trichobothrial numbers in patellar series eb(= 5) and eba (= 7); it is elevated here to the species status as E. hadzii Caporiacco, 1950 (Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria,Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Yugoslavia). This species includes as a new synonym E. c. lagostae Caporiacco, 1950.The fourth species-rank taxon confirmed here is E. koschewnikowi Birula, 1900 (Greece), with “standard” trichobothrialnumber in the patellar eb (= 4), eba (= 4) and em (= 4) series but with other unique morphological features.We fix neotypes of E. tergestinus and E. hadzii, and a lectotype of E. koschewnikowi. These four species and E.balearicus Caporiacco, another member of this complex, are contrasted in detail using trichobothrial patterns, morphometricratios and carinal development trends as diagnostic characters.
High-level systematics and phylogeny of the extant scorpions (Scorpiones: Orthosterni).
Soleglad, M.E.,Fet, V.
Euscorpius , 2003,
Abstract: A number of authors (e. g. Birula, 1917a, 1917b; Mello-Leit o, 1945; Stockwell, 1989) addressed above-level systematics of extant scorpions, and accepted the grouping of scorpion families in several superfamilies. At the same time, Kjellesvig-Waering (1986) classified all extant scorpions under the same superfamily, Scorpionoidea. Sissom(1990) and Fet et al. (2000) did not list any superfamilies, considering the systematic situation above family (and often at the family level as well) unresolved. Most recently, Louren o (2000a) listed six superfamilies, largely following the unpublished but important study of Stockwell (1989). The goal of this paper is to address scorpion systematics and phylogeny above genus level. We conducted a comprehensive, cladistic morphological analysis of 90extant genera (over 150 species) of scorpions belonging to all recognized families. We especially concentrated on relationships among so-called “chactoid” scorpions, where subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes were revised and/or established. The family Chactidae was given a special attention due to the number of phylogenetic and taxonomic issues that were revised. In addition, we addressed the status of a recently discovered, unique relict family Pseudochactidae,and the systematic relationships within Iuridae. As a result of intensive study, we propose a number of sweeping changes in current scorpion taxonomy; the results of analyses leading to these changes are discussed in detail. The category of parvorder, subordinate to infraorder, is introduced for the first time in arachnid systematics.Four extant parvorders are recognized within the scorpion infraorder Orthosterni: Buthida, Chaerilida, Pseudochactida, and Iurida. Six extant superfamilies are recognized: Buthoidea, Chactoidea (=Vaejovoidea, syn. n), Chaeriloidea, Iuroidea (new), Pseudochactoidea (new), and Scorpionoidea (=Bothriuroidea, syn. n). Parvorders Buthida, Chaerilida and Pseudochactida are monotypic, each including a single superfamily; parvorder Iurida includes threesuperfamilies (Chactoidea, Iuroidea, and Scorpionoidea). We recognize 14 extant scorpion families: Bothriuridae, Buthidae, Caraboctonidae, Chactidae, Chaerilidae, Euscorpiidae, Iuridae, Liochelidae, Microcharmidae, Pseudochactidae, Scorpionidae, Superstitioniidae, Urodacidae, and Vaejovidae. Superfamilies Chaeriloidea and Pseudochactoidea are monotypic; superfamily Buthoidea includes two families (Buthidae and Microcharmidae). Superfamily Iuroidea includes two families (Caraboctonidae and Iuridae); subfamily Caraboctoninae (formerly in Iuridae) is el
Contributions to scorpion systematics. IV. Observations on the Hadrurus “spadix” subgroup with a description of a new species (Scorpiones: Caraboctonidae).
Soleglad, Michael E.,Fet, Victor,Lowe, Graeme
Euscorpius , 2011,
Abstract: In this study new data are presented on the “spadix” subgroup of genus Hadrurus, including the description of a new species, H. anzaborrego, sp. nov., found primarily in the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP) in southern California, USA. This species is distinguished by its internal trichobothrial pattern of the chela and its unique carapace pattern. The status of Hadrurus obscurus Williams, 1970 is discussed and new locality data for this species are provided. A phylogenetic key to the genera, species, and subspecies of subfamily Hadrurinae is provided.
Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part VII. Kerman Province.
Navidpour, S.,Ezatkhah, M.,Kova?ík, F.,Soleglad, M. E.
Euscorpius , 2011,
Abstract: Thirteen species of scorpions belonging to two families are reported from the Kerman Province of Iran. Of these, the species Compsobuthus kaftani Kova ík, 2003, Mesobuthus macmahoni (Pocock, 1900), Orthochirus farzanpayi (Vachon et Farzanpay, 1987), Polisius persicus Fet, Capes et Sissom, 2001, Sassanidotus gracilis (Birula, 1900), and Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861 are recorded from the province for the first time. Kerman Province contains type localities of six species of scorpions, of which Kraepelinia palpator (Birula, 1903) and Orthochirus gruberi Kova ík et Fet, 2006 are valid. Prionurus crassicauda orientalis Birula, 1900 is a synonym of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807), Buthus eupeus kirmanensis Birula, 1900 and Buthus pachysoma Birula, 1900 are probably synonyms of Mesobuthus eupeus persicus (Pocock, 1899), and Buthus gabrielis Werner, 1929, according to published information and occurrences near the type locality, probably is a synonym of Sassanidotus gracilis (Birula, 1900). These taxonomic problems are discussed below. Also, Buthus atrostriatus Pocock, 1897 is transferred to genus Compsobuthus. A key to all species of scorpions found in Kerman Province is presented.
A new species of Vaejovis from Prescott, Arizona (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae).
Ayrey, R.F.,Soleglad, M.E.
Euscorpius , 2011,
Abstract: A new scorpion species, Vaejovis crumpi, sp. nov., is described from Prescott, Yavapai Co., Arizona. This species is related to V. paysonensis Soleglad, 1973, and the “sky island” species of southern Arizona. V. crumpi is compared to the seven Vaejovis species currently reported for Arizona, in particular to V. paysonensis
The genus Akrav Levy, 2007 (Scorpiones: Akravidae) revisited.
Fet, V.,Soleglad, M. E.,Zonstein, S. L.
Euscorpius , 2011,
Abstract: Akrav israchanani, a relict chactoid scorpion from the famous Ayyalon Cave in Israel, is analyzed for the first time since its original description by Gershom Levy (2007). All scorpions found in this cave (20 specimens) were dead, represented by exoskeletons; they are mostly fragmented during collection, many incomplete, but extremely well preserved, and have no evidence of fossilization. Time and cause of death are unknown. Diagnostic characters described by Levy are largely confirmed, and some are further clarified. An exhaustive set of microscopic images is published, encompassing data from all best preserved specimens. Previously unpublished morphological details are illustrated such as exact pattern of trichobothria, finger dentition, structure of pectinal organs, etc. Measurements of type series are provided. Presence of mites (Acari) in the Ayyalon Cave is not confirmed: the only specimen tentatively identified as a mite proved to be a late-stage scorpion embryo found inside one of the females; it is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic placement of Akrav within Recent scorpions is discussed, and its affinity to New World Chactoidea (Superstitioniidae: Typhlochactinae) is demonstrated. Biogeographic and ecological observations are provided. Unusual structure of pedipalp fingertips is suggested to be a device for foraging on aquatic crustaceans abundant in the cave’s pool.
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