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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1088 matches for " Sohail Kamran "
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Mobile Phone: Calling and Texting Patterns of College Students in Pakistan
Sohail Kamran
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n4p26
Abstract: This paper qualitatively investigated the mobile phone calling and texting patterns among youth in Pakistan. Initially, the data was gathered from seventy seven (n=77) college students aged 17-21 years, who completed twenty four hours mobile phone communication diaries. Completed communication diaries were followed by twenty three in-depth interviews with the college students to collect detailed background information. Study results revealed congruity of SMS and calling patterns among male and female youth. This research discovered that the majority of youth is extremely high user, fond of texting and low user of voice calls. This research unfolded that the youth do most of the mobile phones communications within their age group, communicate in both positive and negative ways. However, majority of mobile phone communications among youth could be categorized as problematic with reference to the place, time, and purpose. The main motivation of high and problematic use among youth is very low priced prepaid packages offered by the telecom operators in Pakistan. Policy implications for the regulatory body are to educate the youth about the appropriate and inappropriate use of mobile phone technology, and issuance of code of advertising to the telecom operators in Pakistan.
Assessment of Rock Mass Quality and Deformation Modulus by Empirical Methods along Kandiah River, KPK, Pakistan  [PDF]
Mian Sohail Akram, Kamran Mirza, Muhammad Zeeshan, Muhammad Asad Jabbar
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2018.810057
Abstract: The pivotal aim of this study is to evaluate the rock mass characterization and deformation modulus. It is vital for rock mass classification to investigate important parameters of discontinuities. Therefore, Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and Tunneling quality index (Q) classification systems are applied to analyze 22 segments along proposed tunnel routes for hydropower in Kandiah valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. RMR revealed the range of fair to good quality rocks, whereas Q yielded poor to fair quality rocks for investigated segments of the rock mass. Besides, Em values were acquired by empirical equations and computer-aided program RocLab, and both methods presented almost similar variation trend of their results. Hence, the correlations of Em with Q and RMR were carried out with higher values of the regression coefficient. This study has scientific significance to initially understand the rock mass conditions of Kandiah valley.
Textile Environmental Conditioning: Effect of Relative Humidity Variation on the Tensile Properties of Different Fabrics  [PDF]
Mansoor Iqbal, Munazza Sohail, Aleem Ahmed, Kamran Ahmed, Arsheen Moiz, Khalil Ahmed
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2012.22017
Abstract: With the aim that to confirm the need for humidity control in the environment in which textile sample are visually and instrumentally analyzed, three different pre-conditioned fabrics sample of cotton, polyester and silk were treated at a fix temperature of 21?C. The relative humidity adjusted to four levels: 55%, 65%, 75% and 85% RH for a conditioning time of 24 hours as specified in ASTM D-1776-98. It has been observed that as the relative humidity increase from 55% to 85% cotton increase its tensile strength, silk losses its strength and there was no significant change observed in the tensile strength of polyester fabric.
Comparison between Pigment Printing Systems with Acrylate and Butadiene Based Binders  [PDF]
Mansoor Iqbal, Javaid Mughal, Munazza Sohail, Arsheen Moiz, Kamran Ahmed, Khalil Ahmed
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2012.22016
Abstract: Pigment printing was carried out on lab scale by simple screen-printing techniques. By the application of acrylate and butadiene based binder, the crocking fastness, formaldehyde release and PVC migration of fabric printed with Imparon red KB pigment was evaluated. The effect of curing time on K/S values was also investigated. It has been found that butadiene based binder shows good performance in terms of crocking fastness, formaldehyde release and PVC migra-tion. It has also been observed that by increasing the binder concentration, the release of formaldehyde decreased and by increasing the curing time, the K/S values of printed fabric were decreased.
Geotechnical Investigation and Prediction of Rock Burst, Squeezing with Remediation Design by Numerical Analyses along Headrace Tunnel in Swat Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan  [PDF]
Mian Sohail Akram, Kamran Mirza, Muhammad Zeeshan, Muhammad Ali, Luqman Ahmed
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2018.810058
Abstract: This study illustrates the classification of the rock mass and evaluation of rock squeezing, rock burst potential, deformation modulus along the proposed tunnel alignment of small hydropower in Swat Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The field and laboratory studies were conducted to classify the rock mass by using geomechanical classification systems i.e. Rock Mass Rating (RMR), tunneling quality index (Q), Rock Mass Index (RMi). The empirical relations classified the ground as non-squeezing and minor to non-squeezing conditions, respectively. Whereas, other methods depict minor to medium bursting potential along chainage 1+000 to 4+000 m, while results along chainage 2+400 - 2+800 m present medium to high bursting potential. Furthermore, numerical analyses were carried out by RS3 for elastic and plastic conditions in order to assess the total displacement of each section in unsupported and supported conditions. The results gave maximum displacement along chainage 2+400 - 2+800 m (19.2 mm in unsupported and 16mm in supported condition) and minimum displacement along chainage 0+876 - 1+000 m (1.4 mm in unsupported and 1.3 mm in supported condition). Hence, the estimated support by empirical methods has been optimized by using numerical analyses for the stability of rock mass along the tunnel.
Implementing Strong Code Mobility
Muhammad Kamran Naseem,Sohail Iqbal,Khalid Rashid
Information Technology Journal , 2004,
Abstract: This study presents the idea of implementing strong code mobility in terms of platform independence, microprocessor architecture reliance and resource management. Proposed system establishes a shared connection with the resources and its surrounding environment based on distributed structured XML-based knowledge. The resources managed by the process are shared between the nodes, so that the developer can program in a centralized setting. The goal is to present a solution for strong code mobility for commonly used platforms.
Geotechnical and Hydrological Characterization of Subsurface for Metallic Minerals Mining Operations in Punjab, Pakistan  [PDF]
Mian Sohail Akram, Kamran Mirza, Usman Ali, Muhammad Zeeshan
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2019.911088
Abstract: The study area is covered by alluvium having average thickness of about 200 m that is underlain by the Precambrian basement rock units including iron ore to be mined in future. In this regards, necessary campaign of subsurface investigations including both geotechnical and hydrogeological has been carried. In geotechnical investigations, disturbed and undisturbed samples were collected from five (5) boreholes and hydrological investigations by using water pump out test were conducted to determine the characteristics of aquifer. Rock samples were also collected from already drilled boreholes for iron ore estimation from a depth of more than 200 m. The laboratory testing has classified alluvium as silty sand/sandy silt (SP-SM/SM) and clayey silt/non-plastic silt (CL-ML/ML) as per soil classification criteria having angel of friction of 31.4 - 38.5 degree with bulk density of 1.461 - 1.853 g/cc. The initial void ratio (eo) varies from 0.412 to 0.952 with no swell potential in consolidation tests. The chemical analyses of the soil have indicated values of 0.003% - 0.006%, 0.0012% - 0.0057%, 0.013% - 0.030% sulphate, chloride and organic matter contents respectively with pH-value of 6.92 - 7.56. The strength of the underlying rock was found to be medium strong to very strong corresponding to values of 25 - 140 MPa in uniaxial compression and indirect tensile strength of 15.66 MPa. Hydrological study reveals that aquifer is unconfined and generally isotropic in nature. The average transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient are 6038 m2/day, 4.0 × 101 m/day and 0.016, respectively that presented aquifer is quite permeable. The cone of influence covered area of 65 m from main production well. For the open pit mining operation, stability analysis is performed by assuming a 4V:1H slope in the bedrock while 1V:1H in the overlying sediments cover using Limit-Equilibrium (LE) analysis in Slide computer program. However, overburden slope was concluded to be unstable with the analyzed slope angle. The deformation analysis for mine slopes by finite element method was performed using Phase 2 (RS) software. The results show maximum deformation is likely to be in order of as high as 700 mm for individual slope riser whereas in the range of 300 to 400 mm for the overall slope.
Assessment of Rock Mass Quality and Support Estimation along Headrace Tunnel of a Small Hydropower in District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan  [PDF]
Mian Sohail Akram, Muhammad Zeeshan, Muhammad Haroon, Kamran Mirza
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2019.911092
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to classify the rock mass quality by using rock mass quality (Q) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) systems along headrace tunnel of small hydropower in Mansehra District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Geological field work was carried out to determine the orientation, spacing, aperture, roughness and alteration of discontinuities of rock mass. The quality of rock mass along the tunnel route is classified as good to very poor quality by Q system, while very good to very poor by RMR classification system. The relatively good rock conditions are acquired via RMR values that are attributed to ground water conditions, joint spacing, RQD and favorable orientation of discontinuities with respect to the tunnel drive. The petrographic studies revealed that study area is mainly comprised of five major geological rock units namely quartz mica schist (QMS), garnet mica schist (GMS), garnet bearing quartz mica schist (G-QMS), calcareous schist (CS), marble (M). The collected samples of quartz mica schist, marble and garnet bearing quartz mica schist are fine to medium grained, compact and are cross cut by few discontinuities having greater spacing. Therefore, these rocks have greater average RQD, Q values, RMR ratings as compared to garnet mica schist and calcareous schist.
The basic blocks of the universe matter: Boltzmann fundamental particle and energy quanta of dark matter and dark energy  [PDF]
Murad Shibli, Sohail Anwar
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.39099
Abstract: Recent astronomical NASA observations indicates that visible matter contributes only to about 4% of the universe total energy density, meanwhile, dark matter and dark energy contributes to 26% and 70% of the universe total energy, respectively, with an average density close to 10–26 kg/m3. This paper proposes an equation of state of dark energy and dark matter as one unified entity. This equation is derived based on the ideal gas equation, Boltzmann constant, Einstein energy-mass principle and based on the assumption that dark energy and dark matter behave as a perfect fluid. This analysis presents what could be the most fundamental particle and quanta of dark matter and dark energy. Considering NASA’s Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer (CMB) which estimated that the sky has an average temperature close to 2.7251 Kelvin, then the equivalent mass and energy of the proposed fundamental particle is determined. It is found that this candidate particle has an equivalent mass of 4.2141 × 10–40 Kg which is equivalent to 3.7674 × 10–23 J. Surprisingly, this value has the same order of Boltzmann constant KB = 1.38 ×10–23 J/K. This candidate particle could be the most fundamental and lightest particle in Nature and serves as the basic block of matter (quarks and gluons). Moreover, assuming a uniform space dark energy/dark matter density, then the critical temperature at which the dark matter has a unity entity per volume is determined as 34.983 × 1012 K. Analytically, it proposes that at this trillion temperature scale, the dark matter particles unified into a new quark-hydron particle. Finally, tentative experimental verification can be con ducted using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
A Novel Generalized Nonholonomy Criteria and Physical Interpretation of Holonomic/Nonholonomic Constraints of a Free-Flying Space Robot with/without Interaction with a Flying Target Satellite  [PDF]
Murad Shibli, Sohail Anwar
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2011.24032
Abstract: This paper presents a new nonholonomy criteria and reveals the physical interpretation of holonomoic and nonholonomic constraints acting on a free-flying space robot with or without interaction with a free Flying/Floating target object. The analysis in this paper interprets the physical interpretation behind such constraints, and clarifies geometric and kinematic conditions that generate such constraints. Moreover, a new criterion of finding the holonomy/nonholonomy of constraints impose on a free-flying space robot with or without interaction with a floating object is presented as well. The proposed criteria are applicable in case of zero or non-zero initial momentum conditions. Such nonholonomy criteria are proposed by utilizing the concept of orthogonal projection matrices and singular value decomposition (SVD). Using this methodology will also enable us to verify online whether the constraints are violated in case of real-time applications and to take a correction action or switch the controllers. This criterion is still yet valid even the interaction with floating object is lost. Applications of the proposed criteria can be dedicated to in-orbit servicing robotic satellite to capture malfunctioned spacecrafts and satellites, docking space of NASA and Russian shuttles with International Space Station (ISA), building in-orbit stations, space rescue missions and asteroids dust sampling. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed criterion.
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