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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1596 matches for " Sofia Wiman "
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Qualified for Power? On Epistemology in Voting  [PDF]
Sofia Wiman
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.53022
Abstract: Equal distribution of suffrage is given a nearly “quasi-religious” status by democrats. However, the right to vote rests on a presumption of capacity, and knowledge and competence therefore are important features of democratic arrangements. Democratic theory often assumes that, in order for (representative) democracy to work properly, the average citizen should be interested in, and pay attention to, politics. In reality, however, only a minority of citizens live up to these standards. This paper examines whether demands of uncontroversial knowledge, that is, knowledge about what it means to vote, can be demanded of voters in order for them to be allowed to vote. It is concluded that, for reasons of justice and “issues of mutual concern”, such demands can be raised regarding such uncontroversial knowledge (but perhaps not for knowledge more controversial in kind).
WRAP53 Is Essential for Cajal Body Formation and for Targeting the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex to Cajal Bodies
Salah Mahmoudi,Sofia Henriksson,Irene Weibrecht,Stephen Smith,Ola S?derberg,Staffan Str?mblad,Klas G. Wiman,Marianne Farnebo
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000521
Abstract: The WRAP53 gene gives rise to a p53 antisense transcript that regulates p53. This gene also encodes a protein that directs small Cajal body–specific RNAs to Cajal bodies. Cajal bodies are nuclear organelles involved in diverse functions such as processing ribonucleoproteins important for splicing. Here we identify the WRAP53 protein as an essential factor for Cajal body maintenance and for directing the survival of motor neuron (SMN) complex to Cajal bodies. By RNA interference and immunofluorescence we show that Cajal bodies collapse without WRAP53 and that new Cajal bodies cannot be formed. By immunoprecipitation we find that WRAP53 associates with the Cajal body marker coilin, the splicing regulatory protein SMN, and the nuclear import receptor importinβ, and that WRAP53 is essential for complex formation between SMN–coilin and SMN–importinβ. Furthermore, depletion of WRAP53 leads to accumulation of SMN in the cytoplasm and prevents the SMN complex from reaching Cajal bodies. Thus, WRAP53 mediates the interaction between SMN and associated proteins, which is important for nuclear targeting of SMN and the subsequent localization of the SMN complex to Cajal bodies. Moreover, we detect reduced WRAP53–SMN binding in patients with spinal muscular atrophy, which is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality worldwide, caused by mutations in SMN1. This suggests that loss of WRAP53-mediated SMN trafficking contributes to spinal muscular atrophy.
WRAP53 Is Essential for Cajal Body Formation and for Targeting the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex to Cajal Bodies
Salah Mahmoudi,Sofia Henriksson,Irene Weibrecht,Stephen Smith,Ola S?derberg,Staffan Str?mblad,Klas G. Wiman,Marianne Farnebo
PLOS Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000521
Abstract: The WRAP53 gene gives rise to a p53 antisense transcript that regulates p53. This gene also encodes a protein that directs small Cajal body–specific RNAs to Cajal bodies. Cajal bodies are nuclear organelles involved in diverse functions such as processing ribonucleoproteins important for splicing. Here we identify the WRAP53 protein as an essential factor for Cajal body maintenance and for directing the survival of motor neuron (SMN) complex to Cajal bodies. By RNA interference and immunofluorescence we show that Cajal bodies collapse without WRAP53 and that new Cajal bodies cannot be formed. By immunoprecipitation we find that WRAP53 associates with the Cajal body marker coilin, the splicing regulatory protein SMN, and the nuclear import receptor importinβ, and that WRAP53 is essential for complex formation between SMN–coilin and SMN–importinβ. Furthermore, depletion of WRAP53 leads to accumulation of SMN in the cytoplasm and prevents the SMN complex from reaching Cajal bodies. Thus, WRAP53 mediates the interaction between SMN and associated proteins, which is important for nuclear targeting of SMN and the subsequent localization of the SMN complex to Cajal bodies. Moreover, we detect reduced WRAP53–SMN binding in patients with spinal muscular atrophy, which is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality worldwide, caused by mutations in SMN1. This suggests that loss of WRAP53-mediated SMN trafficking contributes to spinal muscular atrophy.
How Travels a Bohmian Particle?  [PDF]
Sofia Wechsler
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.312231
Abstract: Bohm’s mechanics was built for explaining individual results in measurements, and mainly for getting rid of the enigmatic reduction postulate. Its main idea is that particles have at any time definite positions and velocities. An additional axiom is that particles follow continuous trajectories that admit the first derivative in time, the velocity. In the quantum theory, if the position of a quantum object is well-defined at some time, a Δt time later the object may be found anywhere in space, so, the velocity defined as Δx/Δt is completely undefined. This incompatibility is regarded in standard quantum theory as nature’s property. The disagreement between quantum and Bohm’s mechanics is particularly strong in wave-like phenomena, e.g. interference. For a particle traveling through an interference fringe, Bohm’s velocity formula shows a dependence of the time-of-flight on the fringe length. Such a dependence is not supported by the quantum theory. Thus, for deciding which prediction is correct one has to measure times-of-flight. But this is a problem. If one detects a particle at two positions and records the detection times, the time difference is meaningless, because the first position measurement disturbs the particle’s Bohm velocity (if exists). This text suggests a way around: instead of measuring positions and times, the particles are raised to an excited, unstable level, by passing them through a laser beam. The unstable level will decay in time, s.t. the density of probability of the excited atoms will indicate the time elapsed since excitation. For comparing the Bohmian and quantum predictions, this text proposes in continuation to send the beam of excited particle upon a mirror. Bohm’s velocity leads to anomalies in the reflected wave.
Adaptive Behaviour on the Portuguese Curricula: A Comparison between Children and Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disability  [PDF]
Sofia Santos
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.57059
Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to assess and compare the adaptive behaviour level of children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability trying to understand how the differences in this area could be influenced by contents and curricula. The sample was composed by 589 children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (both ages 6 to 16, randomly selected from special and regular schools, respectively). The Portuguese version of Adaptive Behaviour Scale was used and administered through an interview, to a proxy who knew the individual being evaluated. Controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, and living area we found that there were statistical significant differences between both groups on most of adaptive behaviour domains in all variables. One of the conclusions is that curricula in special and regular schools differ a lot on contents and in participation activities within the community and that might be one of the causes of the non-skills acquisition by the children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

Which Proof We Have against Continuous Trajectories for Particles?  [PDF]
Sofia Wechsler
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.81006
Abstract: It is in general accepted that the concept of continuous trajectories for particles is at odds with the relativistic quantum mechanics. Namely, when examining the evolution of entangled quantum objects according to frames of coordinates in relative move-ment, one gets contradictory trajectories. Such a situation is typically derived from the famous “Hardy’s paradox”. However, it is argued here that if the rationale ignores the principle of quantum contextuality, as happens typically when using Hardy’s thought-experiment, the conclusion—rejection of the assumption of trajectories—is questionable. The issue is exemplified by an additional example: the 101 property of spin 1 bosons implies conflicting trajectories when the singlet state of two such bosons is examined according to frames in relative movement. It is concluded here that in the absence of a rationale which doesn’t violate the quantum contextuality, there are no sufficient arguments for refuting the possibility of a substructure of the quantum mechanics, consisting in particles following continuous trajectories.
RETRACTED: What Is Wrong with Bohm’s Mechanics? An Analysis of a Hong-Ou-Mandel Type Experiment  [PDF]
Sofia Wechsler
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710097
Abstract:

Short Retraction Notice

The paper does not meet the standards of \"Journal of Modern Physics\". This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused. Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Yang-Hui He (EIC of JMP).?

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper, which is marked \"RETRACTED\".

Effect of mixing on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce: a quantitative analysis of conversion and power consumption
Benny Palmqvist, Magnus Wiman, Gunnar Lidén
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-4-10
Abstract: A marked difference in hydrolysis rate at different impeller speeds was found. For example, the conversion was twice as high after 48 hours at 500 rpm compared with 25 rpm. This difference remained throughout the 96 hours of hydrolysis. Substantial amounts of energy were required to achieve only minor increases in conversion during the later stages of the process.Impeller speed strongly affected both the hydrolysis rate of the pretreated spruce and needed power input. Similar conversions could be obtained at different energy input by altering the mixing (that is, energy input), enzyme load and residence time, an important issue to consider when designing large-scale plants.When scaling up lignocellulose-based ethanol production, the desire to increase the final ethanol titer after the fermentation (a factor that strongly affects process economy) can introduce a number of problems. To achieve a high ethanol titer after fermentation, an increased content of water-insoluble solids (WIS) is needed in the enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) step; however, increasing the WIS content has been shown to have negative effects on EH, resulting in decreased yields [1]. Furthermore, high WIS content will result in high viscosities, which in turn will lead to high energy demands for efficient mixing. For instance, the viscosity of pretreated spruce at 12% WIS was recently found to be about 2 Pa s (at a shear rate (γ) of 50/s)[2].Therefore, determining to what extent mixing is required to obtain an efficient EH is a key issue. Mais et al. [3] and Ingesson et al. [4] investigated the effects of different shaking regimes on the EH of cellulose. They both concluded that intermittent shaking (that is, mainly low-speed shaking but with shorter periods of intense shaking) was comparable with constant intense shaking. However, these experiments were conducted in 300 mL shake flasks with relatively low WIS content, and therefore do not represent an intensified process. Jorgensen et al. [5] and Roch
Superfluid phases of $^3$He in nano-scale channels
J. J. Wiman,J. A. Sauls
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.144515
Abstract: Confinement of superfluid $^3$He on length scales comparable to the radial size of the p-wave Cooper pairs can greatly alter the phase diagram by stabilizing broken symmetry phases not observed in bulk $^3$He. We consider superfluid $^3$He confined within long cylindrical channels of radius $100\mbox{ nm}$, and report new theoretical predictions for the equilibrium superfluid phases under strong confinement. The results are based on the strong-coupling formulation of Ginzburg-Landau theory with precise numerical minimization of the free energy functional to identify the equilibrium phases and their regions of stability. We introduce an extension of the standard GL strong-coupling theory that accurately accounts for the phase diagram at high pressures, including the tri-crital point and $T_{AB}(p)$ line defining the region of stability for the bulk A-phase. We also introduce tuneable boundary conditions that allow us to explore boundary scattering ranging from maximal to minimal pairbreaking, and report results for the phase diagram as a function of pressure, temperature, and boundary conditions. Four stable phases are found: a polar phase stable in the vicinity of $T_c$, a strongly anisotropic, cylindrical analog of the bulk B phase stable at sufficiently low temperatures, and two chiral A-like phases with distinctly different orbital symmetry, one of which spontaneously breaks rotation symmetry about the axis of the cylindrical channel. The relative stability of these phases depends sensitively on pressure and the degree of pairbreaking by boundary scattering. The broken symmetries exhibited by these phases give rise to distinct signatures in transverse NMR resonance spectroscopy. We present theoretical results for the transverse NMR frequency shifts as functions of temperature, the r.f. pulse tipping angle and the static NMR field orientation.
Superfluid phases of $^3$He in a periodic confined geometry
J. J. Wiman,J. A. Sauls
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s10909-013-0924-4
Abstract: Predictions and discoveries of new phases of superfluid $^3$He in confined geometries, as well as novel topological excitations confined to surfaces and edges of near a bounding surface of $^3$He, are driving the fields of superfluid $^3$He infused into porous media, as well as the fabrication of sub-micron to nano-scale devices for controlled studies of quantum fluids. In this report we consider superfluid $^3$He confined in a periodic geometry, specifically a two-dimensional lattice of square, sub-micron-scale boundaries ("posts") with translational invariance in the third dimension. The equilibrium phase(s) are inhomogeneous and depend on the microscopic boundary conditions imposed by a periodic array of posts. We present results for the order parameter and phase diagram based on strong pair breaking at the boundaries. The ordered phases are obtained by numerically minimizing the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. We report results for the weak-coupling limit, appropriate at ambient pressure, as a function of temperature T, lattice spacing L, and post edge dimension, $d$. For all $d$ in which a superfluid transition occurs, we find a transition from the normal state to a periodic, inhomogeneous "polar" phase with $T_{c_1} < T_c$ for bulk superfluid $^3$He. For fixed lattice spacing, L, there is a critical post dimension, d_c, above which only the periodic polar phase is stable. For $d < d_c$ we find a second, low-temperature phase onsetting at $T_{c_2} < T_{c_1}$ from the polar phase to a periodic "B-like" phase. The low temperature phase is inhomogeneous, anisotropic and preserves time-reversal symmetry, but unlike the bulk B-phase has only $D_{4h}$ point symmetry.
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