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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2863 matches for " Sofia Andersson "
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Subspace estimation and prediction methods for hidden Markov models
Sofia Andersson,Tobias Rydén
Statistics , 2009, DOI: 10.1214/09-AOS711
Abstract: Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are probabilistic functions of finite Markov chains, or, put in other words, state space models with finite state space. In this paper, we examine subspace estimation methods for HMMs whose output lies a finite set as well. In particular, we study the geometric structure arising from the nonminimality of the linear state space representation of HMMs, and consistency of a subspace algorithm arising from a certain factorization of the singular value decomposition of the estimated linear prediction matrix. For this algorithm, we show that the estimates of the transition and emission probability matrices are consistent up to a similarity transformation, and that the $m$-step linear predictor computed from the estimated system matrices is consistent, i.e., converges to the true optimal linear $m$-step predictor.
HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behaviour among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan, 2007
Emma Sandgren, Sofia Sandgren, Marat Urazalin, Rune Andersson
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-295
Abstract: We collected 226 questionnaires in a consecutive sample from a population on 520 pregnant women. The results were related to ethnicity, age and education level.Ninety-six percent had heard about HIV.Positive findings were that 89% and 86% of the women were aware of the two main routes of transmission: sexual intercourses without a condom and sharing needles while injecting drugs. The women had first heard about HIV/AIDS through the media with, 52%, and at school with 40%. Only 46% and 68% of the women pointed out breastfeeding and mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy or delivery as routes of transmission. Eighty-three percent were prepared not to breastfeed their baby if they were found to be HIV positive. Slightly more, 86%, accepted the need to take medicine, but fewer women, 68%, were positive to Caesarean section. Negative findings were that only 28% answered that there are ways to protect oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS and specified that this was condom use.The pregnant women in Semey have poor knowledge about specific mother-to-child HIV transmission and do not know about the means of reducing mother-to-child HIV infection. The information in the public health program needs to be improved. However, most of the women in Semey were positive to prevention strategies for mother-to-child transmission after hearing about it.Today about 33 million people are living with HIV. Of them 15 million are women and 2.5 million children under the age of 15 [1].Vertical transmission of HIV from mother-to-child accounts for the vast majority of the infections among the children. Mother-to-child HIV transmission occurs intrauterine, intra-partum and during breastfeeding. Without antiretroviral treatment, the risk of an infected woman transmitting the virus to her child is between 16 and 40%. Breastfeeding contributes at least a 10% risk of transmission [2]. Timely administration of antiretroviral drugs to the HIV infected pregnant woman and her newborn si
Activation of Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Signaling Enhances Survivin Expression in a Mouse Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Sofia E. M. Andersson, Mattias N. D. Svensson, Malin C. Erlandsson, Mats Dehlin, Karin M. E. Andersson, Maria I. Bokarewa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047668
Abstract: Survivin is known as an inhibitor of apoptosis and a positive regulator of cell division. We have recently identified survivin as a predictor of joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) is expressed in the inflamed joints and has adjuvant properties in arthritis. Studies on 90 RA patients (median age 60.5 years [range, 24–87], disease duration 10.5 years [range, 0–35]) show a strong positive association between the levels of survivin and Flt3L in blood. Here, we present experimental evidence connecting survivin and Flt3L signaling. Treatment of BALB/c mice with Flt3L led to an increase of survivin in the bone marrow and in splenic dendritic cells. Flt3L changed the profile of survivin splice variants, increasing transcription of the short survivin40 in the bone marrow. Treatment with an Flt3 inhibitor reduced total survivin expression in bone marrow and in the dendritic cell population in spleen. Inhibition of survivin transcription in mice, by shRNA lentiviral constructs, reduced the gene expression of Flt3L. We conclude that expression of survivin is a downstream event of Flt3 signaling, which serves as an essential mechanism supporting survival of leukocytes during their differentiation, and maturation of dendritic cells, in RA.
Arthritis suppression by NADPH activation operates through an interferon-β pathway
Peter Olofsson, Annika Nerstedt, Malin Hultqvist, Elisabeth C Nilsson, Sofia Andersson, Anna Bergelin, Rikard Holmdahl
BMC Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-5-19
Abstract: Subcutaneous administration of phytol leads to an accumulation of the compound in the inguinal lymph nodes, with peak levels being reached approximately 10 days after administration. Hence, global gene-expression profiling on inguinal lymph nodes was performed 10 days after the induction of pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) and phytol administration. The differentially expressed genes could be divided into two pathways, consisting of genes regulated by different interferons. IFN-γ regulated the pathway associated with arthritis development, whereas IFN-β regulated the pathway associated with disease protection through phytol. Importantly, these two molecular pathways were also confirmed to differentiate between the arthritis-susceptible dark agouti (DA) rat, (with an Ncf-1DA allele that allows only low oxidative burst), and the arthritis-protected DA.Ncf-1E3 rat (with an Ncf1E3 allele that allows a stronger oxidative burst).Naturally occurring genetic polymorphisms in the Ncf-1 gene modulate the activity of the NADPH oxidase complex, which strongly regulates the severity of arthritis. We now show that the Ncf-1 allele that enhances oxidative burst and protects against arthritis is operating through an IFN-β-associated pathway, whereas the arthritis-driving allele operates through an IFN-γ-associated pathway. Treatment of arthritis-susceptible rats with an NADPH oxidase-activating substance, phytol, protects against arthritis. Interestingly, the treatment led to a restoration of the oxidative-burst effect and induction of a strikingly similar IFN-β-dependent pathway, as seen with the disease-protective Ncf1 polymorphism.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases, with a prevalence of 0.5–1% [1,2]. RA is a chronic and severely disabling disease of unknown etiology, although both environmental [3] and genetic factors [4] are believed to play roles in its cause. There is presently no cure for RA, although a variety of different drugs is used to
A missense mutation in PMEL17 is associated with the Silver coat color in the horse
Emma Brunberg, Leif Andersson, Gus Cothran, Kaj Sandberg, Sofia Mikko, Gabriella Lindgren
BMC Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-7-46
Abstract: Segregation data on the Silver locus (Z) were obtained within one half-sib family that consisted of a heterozygous Silver colored stallion with 34 offspring and their 29 non-Silver dams. We typed 41 genetic markers well spread over the horse genome, including one single microsatellite marker (TKY284) close to the candidate gene PMEL17 on horse chromosome 6 (ECA6q23). Significant linkage was found between the Silver phenotype and TKY284 (θ = 0, z = 9.0). DNA sequencing of PMEL17 in Silver and non-Silver horses revealed a missense mutation in exon 11 changing the second amino acid in the cytoplasmic region from arginine to cysteine (Arg618Cys). This mutation showed complete association with the Silver phenotype across multiple horse breeds, and was not found among non-Silver horses with one clear exception; a chestnut colored individual that had several Silver offspring when mated to different non-Silver stallions also carried the exon 11 mutation. In total, 64 Silver horses from six breeds and 85 non-Silver horses from 14 breeds were tested for the exon 11 mutation. One additional mutation located in intron 9, only 759 bases from the missense mutation, also showed complete association with the Silver phenotype. However, as one could expect to find several non-causative mutations completely associated with the Silver mutation, we argue that the missense mutation is more likely to be causative.The present study shows that PMEL17 causes the Silver coat color in the horse and enable genetic testing for this trait.Hair color clearly plays a critical role in camouflage, social communication, sexual and artificial selection, and as protection against solar radiation [1]. Mammalian hair shafts exhibit a wide range of shades. The shades reflect variation in the production of eumelanin (black) and pheomelanin (red) pigments and give rise to colors that humans perceive as black, red, yellow, gray, or white hair fibers. The Silver (Z) coat color in horses shows an autosomal domi
How Travels a Bohmian Particle?  [PDF]
Sofia Wechsler
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.312231
Abstract: Bohm’s mechanics was built for explaining individual results in measurements, and mainly for getting rid of the enigmatic reduction postulate. Its main idea is that particles have at any time definite positions and velocities. An additional axiom is that particles follow continuous trajectories that admit the first derivative in time, the velocity. In the quantum theory, if the position of a quantum object is well-defined at some time, a Δt time later the object may be found anywhere in space, so, the velocity defined as Δx/Δt is completely undefined. This incompatibility is regarded in standard quantum theory as nature’s property. The disagreement between quantum and Bohm’s mechanics is particularly strong in wave-like phenomena, e.g. interference. For a particle traveling through an interference fringe, Bohm’s velocity formula shows a dependence of the time-of-flight on the fringe length. Such a dependence is not supported by the quantum theory. Thus, for deciding which prediction is correct one has to measure times-of-flight. But this is a problem. If one detects a particle at two positions and records the detection times, the time difference is meaningless, because the first position measurement disturbs the particle’s Bohm velocity (if exists). This text suggests a way around: instead of measuring positions and times, the particles are raised to an excited, unstable level, by passing them through a laser beam. The unstable level will decay in time, s.t. the density of probability of the excited atoms will indicate the time elapsed since excitation. For comparing the Bohmian and quantum predictions, this text proposes in continuation to send the beam of excited particle upon a mirror. Bohm’s velocity leads to anomalies in the reflected wave.
Adaptive Behaviour on the Portuguese Curricula: A Comparison between Children and Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disability  [PDF]
Sofia Santos
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.57059

The main objective of this study was to assess and compare the adaptive behaviour level of children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability trying to understand how the differences in this area could be influenced by contents and curricula. The sample was composed by 589 children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (both ages 6 to 16, randomly selected from special and regular schools, respectively). The Portuguese version of Adaptive Behaviour Scale was used and administered through an interview, to a proxy who knew the individual being evaluated. Controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, and living area we found that there were statistical significant differences between both groups on most of adaptive behaviour domains in all variables. One of the conclusions is that curricula in special and regular schools differ a lot on contents and in participation activities within the community and that might be one of the causes of the non-skills acquisition by the children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

Qualified for Power? On Epistemology in Voting  [PDF]
Sofia Wiman
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2015.53022
Abstract: Equal distribution of suffrage is given a nearly “quasi-religious” status by democrats. However, the right to vote rests on a presumption of capacity, and knowledge and competence therefore are important features of democratic arrangements. Democratic theory often assumes that, in order for (representative) democracy to work properly, the average citizen should be interested in, and pay attention to, politics. In reality, however, only a minority of citizens live up to these standards. This paper examines whether demands of uncontroversial knowledge, that is, knowledge about what it means to vote, can be demanded of voters in order for them to be allowed to vote. It is concluded that, for reasons of justice and “issues of mutual concern”, such demands can be raised regarding such uncontroversial knowledge (but perhaps not for knowledge more controversial in kind).
Which Proof We Have against Continuous Trajectories for Particles?  [PDF]
Sofia Wechsler
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.81006
Abstract: It is in general accepted that the concept of continuous trajectories for particles is at odds with the relativistic quantum mechanics. Namely, when examining the evolution of entangled quantum objects according to frames of coordinates in relative move-ment, one gets contradictory trajectories. Such a situation is typically derived from the famous “Hardy’s paradox”. However, it is argued here that if the rationale ignores the principle of quantum contextuality, as happens typically when using Hardy’s thought-experiment, the conclusion—rejection of the assumption of trajectories—is questionable. The issue is exemplified by an additional example: the 101 property of spin 1 bosons implies conflicting trajectories when the singlet state of two such bosons is examined according to frames in relative movement. It is concluded here that in the absence of a rationale which doesn’t violate the quantum contextuality, there are no sufficient arguments for refuting the possibility of a substructure of the quantum mechanics, consisting in particles following continuous trajectories.
RETRACTED: What Is Wrong with Bohm’s Mechanics? An Analysis of a Hong-Ou-Mandel Type Experiment  [PDF]
Sofia Wechsler
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710097

Short Retraction Notice

The paper does not meet the standards of \"Journal of Modern Physics\". This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused. Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Yang-Hui He (EIC of JMP).?

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper, which is marked \"RETRACTED\".

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