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Phenolic Compounds Hybrid Detectors  [PDF]
Jadwiga So?oducho, Joanna Cabaj
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43A003

Phenolic compounds are among the major classes of pollutants produced by industrial and agricultural activities. The amperometric biosensors have been mainly applied to the determination of phenolic compounds because of the advantages such as good selectivity, low cost, and easy automation. Amperometry is a method to measure the electric current that flows as a result of reactions generated at the electrode. Amperometric phenol biosensors are most often based on tyrosinase, laccase or horseradish peroxidase immobilized on the electrode surface. The immobilization of enzymes into ordered thin materials has attracted considerable attention over the past few years. The present researches have demonstrated that biomolecules immobilized in different matrixes retain their functional characteristics to a large extent. These new materials are of great interest for applications as biosensors and biocatalysts. Lately, also conducting polymers have attracted much interest in the development of biological sensors. The electrically conducting polymers are known as possessing many interesting features, which allow them to act as excellent materials for immobilization of biomolecules.

Nano-Sized Elements in Electrochemical Biosensors  [PDF]
Joanna Cabaj, Jadwiga So?oducho
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.510076
The emerging nanotechnology has opened novel opportunities to explore analytical applications of the fabricated nano-sized materials. Recent advances in nano-biotechnology have made it possible to realize a variety of enzyme electrodes suitable for sensing application. In coating miniaturized electrodes with biocatalysts, undoubtedly the most of the potential deposition processes suffer from the difficulty in depositing process and reproducible coatings of the active enzyme on the miniature transducer element. The promising prospects can concern to the obtaining of thin protein layers by using, i.e. electrochemical deposition, electrophoretic deposition as well as monolayer methods (Langmuir-Blodgett procedure, Layer-by-LayerLbL). Many aspects dealing with deposition of enzyme by techniques employing electric field are considered, including surface charge of enzyme, and its migration under applied electric filed. The using of nanoscale materials (i.e. nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods) for electrochemical biosensing has seen also explosive increase in recent years following the discovery of nanotubes. These structures offer a promise in the development of biosensing, facilitating the great improvement of the selectivity and sensitivity of the current methods. Finally, the perspectives in the further exploration of nanoscaled sensors are discussed.
Gout in the spotlight
Alexander So
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/ar2396
Abstract: In this issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Pessler and colleagues [1] report on mRNA microarray analyses on the equivalent of the synovial lining cells after monosodium urate (MSU) crystals were injected into a murine air-pouch; their study addresses the early phase (9 hours) of the tissue response to gouty inflammation.Research on gout and how MSU crystals induce inflammation has recently taken a step forward, emerging from the comparative shadows of rheumatoid arthritis research into the spotlight. In particular, two key publications have challenged our previous ideas about the role of MSU in inflammation. Rock and colleagues [2] showed that urate crystals behaved like an adjuvant, stimulating the immune system's response to dying cells, and more recently, Tschopp and colleagues [3] showed that MSU crystals interact directly with the inflam-masome, a multicomponent cytoplasmic complex that activates IL-1β. These two reports show that MSU crystals have potent phlogistic properties and outline some of the mechanisms. However, there is still a lot to learn about how MSU crystals trigger an acute attack of gout. The precise mechanisms of how MSU crystals gain entry into the leukocyte and how leukocytes then respond to these crystals still need to be elucidated. There are at least two phases of the early acute inflammatory response that can be studied, the first being the effect of MSU crystals on leukocytes and the second the response of the surrounding tissues. These tissues, which include vascular endothelium, respond to inflammation to modulate cell migration, proliferation and metabolic activities that may all contribute to the clinical physiopathology of acute gouty arthritis.The murine air-pouch model utilised by Pessler and colleagues [1], together with peritoneal injection of MSU crystals, are both validated models to study the acute inflammatory effects of MSU. The results of their study highlight a set of acute inflammatory genes that were dramatically u
Developments in the scientific and clinical understanding of gout
Alexander So
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/ar2509
Abstract: Gout is an inflammatory process initiated by tissue deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. A typical attack is an acute monoarthritis accompanied by the classical signs of inflammation. However, inflammation can occur in any tissue in which MSU is deposited, as typified by tophaceous gout and by urate nephropathy due to renal medullary deposition of MSU crystals. Uric acid, a weak acid with a pK of 5.7, is the normal product of purine metabolism in humans and in the plasma exists mainly in the form of urate. In the more acidic environment of the renal tubule, however, it is found mainly in the form of uric acid. At physiological pH, urate crystals form when the plasma solubility of uric acid is exceeded, whereas in the kidney tubule, uric acid crystals are formed when the saturation point of uric acid is exceeded. Hyperuricemia is the main factor that facilitates the formation of MSU crystals, although other factors (such as local temperature and trauma) may also play a role. Once formed, urate crystals are capable of provoking an inflammatory response from leukocytes and synovial cells to trigger the release of cytokines that amplify the local inflammatory reaction. This review will summarize recent progress in our understanding of uric acid metabolism in humans, in particular the role of renal transporters in regulating urate levels. The mechanisms through which MSU crystals cause inflammation have also been intensively studied and these insights are likely to affect our therapy of hyperuricemia and gout in the future.Throughout the Western world, there is strong epidemiological evidence that the prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia is on the increase [1,2]. Based on data from an American insurance database, Wallace and colleagues [3] estimated that between the 1990 and 1999, the prevalence of gout increased by 60% in those over 65 years of age and doubled in the population over 75 years of age. In a study based on UK general practice data, the prevalence
Conflict resolution and peace building: the gender question in the Niger delta crisis in Nigeria
SO Ogege
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: The paper examines the strategic approaches adopted by women and the socio-cultural obstacles that impede women active participation in conflict resolution and peace building process in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Conflict has become a recognizable feature in the oil rich region. The activities of the multinational oil companies have ushered in various manifestations of conflict, resulting from intra/ intercommunity feud, communities agitation for resource control, fulfillment of social exchange obligations and widespread protests over the monumental degradation of the Niger Delta environment by the activities of the multinational oil companies and the repressive measures adopted by the Nigerian state in suppressing the inhabitants from expressing their displeasure. The various forms of conflict have a far-reaching but negative effect on the womenfolk and as such should be made to participate in conflict resolution and peace building process. On the contrary, they are made to believe that their rightful gender role is in the home front as housewives, mothers, and caregivers while the men carry on with important societal roles of conflict resolution and peace building. The paper argues that women by their nature are home managers, calm and lover of peace. Thus, adopt non confrontational or violent free strategies when tackling issues of conflict and peace building. The paper suggests that gender discriminatory policies and legislations in our society should be jettisoned so as to give women the chance to actively participate in conflict resolution and peace building process in the Niger Delta.
Chronicles of medical history in Africa - Pioneers of heart surgery: from Aristotle to Grillo
SO Michael
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: No
English Language Teachers’ Attitudes to the Promotion of the Standard Nigerian English: A Survey from a Nigerian City
SO Olatunji
African Research Review , 2012,
Abstract: Against the backdrop of the near-impossibility of attaining a native-like command of the English in a second language situation, which is one of the major factors found to be militating against Nigerian learners of the English language, this study examines the prospects of promoting the Standard Nigerian English to end the futile struggle of aspiring to a perfect mastery of the Standard British English. It attempts ascertaining the psychological readiness of English language teachers to embrace the teaching and assessment of students based on the more easily attainable SNE. Copies of a self-constructed twelve-item questionnaire were validated and administered to one hundred and forty-seven randomly selected secondary school English language teachers in Ibadan. Frequency counts, percentages, and chi-square statistics were employed to answer a research question and test two null hypotheses. The results revealed no significant difference in the language teachers' attitudes to the promotion of the standardized variety of the Nigerian English based on gender but significant difference according academic qualifications. It is thus recommended that Government undertakes research on the prospects and problems of elevating the standard Nigerian English and meticulously implement the policy emanating from ensuing findings.
Nigeria's Development Challenges in a Digitalized Global Economy
SO Ogege
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: The paper assesses Nigeria s digital opportunity index in a digitalized global economy. Given the rising knowledge intensity that permeates every aspect of life, Nigeria is inevitably drawn into the digital global economy indexed by information and communication technology. The paper argues rather succinctly that, the Digital Opportunity Index score reveals a bleak cloud over Nigeria in comparative terms. This degrading status, it earns due to the challenges of corruption in governance, inadequate energy and power supply, widespread insecurity, poverty and high illiteracy level. In other to overcome these challenges, the paper recommends among others sound anticorruption policy, transparent governance, revamping the infrastructural base for information and communication technology, adequate and steady energy and power supply viable security measures and making information and communication facilities and services easily affordable and accessible to the common man. It is only through effective implementation of the recommendations that Nigeria can lead or at least secure a seat among the comity of nations in the digitalized global economy.
Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products through microbial fermentation
SO Aro
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the reasons canvassed generally for embarking on fermentation which include among others: biological enrichment of the substrate in terms of protein, vitamins, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids; impartation of good aroma, flavour and texture; preservation of the fermented products and decrease in cooking time and fuel requirement. The choice of the fermentation methods that have been employed was the next topic of this article with a dividing line drawn between the two most popular fermentation methods – submerged/liquid substrate fermentation and solid substrate fermentation in which the balance is greatly tilted in favour of the latter, especially in the developing countries because of its relatively low cost, ease of adaptability of local conditions and technologies, little or no effluent generation and a much reduced rate of environmental pollution. The array of some cassava products that have been fermented with their varied rate of success in terms of nutrient enhancement from diverse cultures and background together with animal trials conducted to validate the in vitro nutrient enhancement of these products was also highlighted.
Knowledge and attitudes of physicians relating to reporting of adverse drug reactions in Sokoto, northwestern Nigeria
SO Bello
Annals of African Medicine , 2011,
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