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Simulation Analysis on Applicability of Meta Material and PBG Based mm-Wave Planar Antenna for Advanced Cellular Technologies  [PDF]
Smrity Dwivedi
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2017.51003
Abstract: Metamaterials have got a unique identification in the field of electromagnetic. Left handed metamaterials have been recognized through its working at high frequencies with larger bandwidth in antenna design. The author has proposed a multi substrates LH metamaterials with an array of split triangular antennas for wideband as well as for larger bandwidth. FR4 is being used at frequency 42 - 26 GHz with thickness of 3 mm for substrate and matching circuit is inserted to get high gain with minimum reflections. The number of rods in PBG is 100, which is found to get high return losses and ideal behavior of VSWR. Obtained results have been in good agreement such as S11 is approximately 30 dB, VSWR 1.8 dB and the bandwidth enhancement is 2 GHz at frequency 5 GHz. All results are plotted using commercial software CST microwave studio (Version 2012) and MATLAB.
Design of Wideband PBG Antenna for New Generation Communication Systems through Simulation  [PDF]
Smrity Dwivedi
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2017.54013
In modern wireless communication system, demand of high bandwidth antennas with low cost are increased. In proposed paper, these requirements have been fully justified by using PBG based wideband antenna. Although, metamaterial is one more option to build this idea, sometimes, negative permittivity or negative permeability or both does not permit to allow easy fabrication and maintaining low cost. An antenna with several periodic rods and organic magnetic materials substrate made it possible to enhance the bandwidth and think off using it for 5G communication systems. Proposed antenna is designed and fabricated for frequency range of 40 GHz - 50 GHz, and 12 × 9 periodic rods with substrate having organic magnetic materials property. Antenna is designed and analyzed using commercial simulation software CST microwave studio (CST STUDIO SUITE 2014) and measured for return loss and VSWR for fabricated design. Obtained results meet the requirement of wider bandwidth of 1.5 - 2 GHz and return loss, ?35 dB, and directivity is 61 dBi with efficiency of 61%.
Sexual Dimorphism in Adult Human Mandible of North Indian Origin  [PDF]
Rahul Singh, Suniti R. Mishra, Sushobhana ?, Jigyasa Passey, Pramod Kumar, Shailendra Singh, Priyanka Sinha, Smrity Gupta
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2015.33014
Abstract: Background: In forensic science the identification of a human is based on three important factors: Age, Sex and Stature. Bones are an important tool for it and among human bones the pelvis and the skull are the most reliable source for sex determination. In the absence of complete pelvis, mandi-ble becomes the important source for sex determination since mandible is the most durable and movable part of skull that can resist postmortem changes. The present study is conducted to assess the accuracy and role of few metric and morphological parameters in determination of the sex of dry adult human mandible of North Indian origin. Material & Methods: The Study is conducted on 50 dry intact human adult mandibles of North Indian origin. The metric parameters i.e. bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth are measured with a Vernier Calliper by two observers. Non-metric parameters being observed are the morphological features like gonion flaring, muscular markings and shape of angle of symphysis menti. Result & Conclusion: It is concluded that bigonial breadth and bicondylar breadth exhibit the sexual dimorphism. Morphological Parameters: Gonion flaring, muscular markings and shape of angle of symphysis menti also demonstrate the sexual dimorphism. These parameters taken together may determine the sex of adult human mandibles. The present study shows that the mandible is an important tool in the determination of gender with high accuracy.
Forced Marriage in Bangladesh: A Quantitative Study to Identify Key Factors  [PDF]
Mohammad Romel Bhuia, Khalidur Rahman, Khurshid Alam, Lipi Akter Smrity, Md Kabir Hossain
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.58045
Abstract: In this article, a study on the status of forced marriages in Sylhet division of Bangladesh has been done to determine the prevailing state of it and to identify the key factors that needed to be emphasized. A survey was conducted and a total of 1369 respondents were interviewed. This study mainly deals with 146 respondents who were found to be forced to marriage and some of them were victims of it. Cross-table and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results show that forced marriages and victims of such incidents are greatly affected by people’s education and their income levels. The family types, age of participants, spouse selection approach, and desired time to marry are also significant factors. The concerned human rights workers should emphasize on the findings of this study to improve the human rights practice in Bangladesh.
Role of Multidetector CT in Evaluation of Polytrauma Patients  [PDF]
Amit Nandan Dhar Dwivedi
Open Journal of Emergency Medicine (OJEM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojem.2014.23009

Trauma is the leading cause of death in age group less than 45 years. In trauma, time is one of the most crucial factors in predicting prognosis. Outcomes are greatly improved when critical interventions are provided within the golden hour following injury. Whole body multidetector computerised tomography (WBMDCT) can decrease this critical time and increase survival. Emergency CT plays a major role in diagnostic workflow in the evaluation of patients with polytrauma. MDCT scanners are widely used because they rapidly produce high-resolution scans of large areas, offering short examination times for multiple body regions under emergency conditions. Such examinations most often include the head, cervical spine, and thorax to pelvis. Role of MDCT in head trauma remains unparalleled for reasons like its widespread availability and capability to reveal skull fractures, primarily because it is a fast and efficient method to triage the patients with treatable conditions mandating urgent surgical intervention such as extra axial hematomas, mass effect, herniations of brain, hydrocephalus, and midline shift and hence preventing secondary brain injury. MDCT angiography is an important tool to screen patients with suspected vascular injury.

Distribution and Association of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Different Cultivars of Wheat from Lalganj Pratapgarh District of Utter Pradesh, India  [PDF]
O. P. Dwivedi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.65034
Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are key components of soil micro-flora and obviously interact with other microorganisms in the rhizosphere which is the zone of influence of plant roots on microbial populations and other soil constituents. Keeping in view the importance of AM fungi, the present study was undertaken for assessing the AM fungal spore population dynamics in the rhizosphere soil and its colonization in rhizosphere soils in relation to soil physico-chemical factors. Present study represents an attempt to establish the qualitative and quantitative distribution of AM fungal species in rhizosphere soils of wheat. Thirteen different wheat cultivars collected from four different sites of Lalganj Pratapgarh (U.P.), India were examined for the AM infection. All the wheat cultivars were found to be infected with arbuscular mycorrhizae. However, their population in rhizosphere and root infection varied to a considerable extent from species to species. The maximum spore population and highest percentage of root colonization were found with the rhizosphere soil of cultivars Ankur Kedar.
Statistical models for predicting number of involved nodes in breast cancer patients  [PDF]
Alok Kumar Dwivedi, Sada Nand Dwivedi, Suryanarayana Deo, Rakesh Shukla
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.27098
Abstract: Clinicians need to predict the number of involved nodes in breast cancer patients in order to ascertain severity, prognosis, and design subsequent treatment. The distribution of involved nodes often displays over-dispersion—a larger variability than expected. Until now, the negative binomial model has been used to describe this distribution assuming that over-dispersion is only due to unobserved heterogeneity. The distribution of involved nodes contains a large proportion of excess zeros (negative nodes), which can lead to over-dispersion. In this situation, alternative models may better account for over-dispersion due to excess zeros. This study examines data from 1152 patients who underwent axillary dissections in a tertiary hospital in India during January 1993-January 2005. We fit and compare various count models to test model abilities to predict the number of involved nodes. We also argue for using zero inflated models in such populations where all the excess zeros come from those who have at some risk of the outcome of interest. The negative binomial regression model fits the data better than the Poisson, zero hurdle/inflated Poisson regression models. However, zero hurdle/inflated negative binomial regression models predicted the number of involved nodes much more accurately than the negative binomial model. This suggests that the number of involved nodes displays excess variability not only due to unobserved heterogeneity but also due to excess negative nodes in the data set. In this analysis, only skin changes and primary site were associated with negative nodes whereas parity, skin changes, primary site and size of tumor were associated with a greater number of involved nodes. In case of near equal performances, the zero inflated negative binomial model should be preferred over the hurdle model in describing the nodal frequency because it provides an estimate of negative nodes that are at “high-risk” of nodal involvement.
Determinants of infant mortality in rural India: A three-level model  [PDF]
Sada Nand Dwivedi, Shahina Begum, Alok Kumar Dwivedi, Arvind Pandey
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511235
Abstract: Taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data, through two-level analysis on infant mortality available under second round of National family Health Survey, the same group of authors recently reported determinants of infant mortality while examining possible changes in results under traditional regression analysis that ignores hierarchical structure of data. They reported that the community (e.g., state) level characteristics still have a major role regarding infant mortality in India. For better epidemiological understanding, the present study is to assess determinants of infant mortality in rural India, where three level considerations were possible. The results indicate that even after consideration of these covariates, variation in infant mortality remains significant not only between States but also between Districts. Further, as an additional observation, the probability of infant mortality is still high in rural areas of districts having health facility beyond three kilometers than their counterparts.
Study of Intermolecular Interactions in Liquid Crystals: Para-butyl-p’-cyano-biphenyl  [PDF]
K. K. Dwivedi, M. K. Dwivedi, S. N. Tiwari
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2014.41005

Various characteristics of mesomorphism can be explained using intermolecular interactions between a pair of liquid crystalline molecules. The intermolecular interactions have been calculated considering multipole-multicentere expansion method and modified by second order perturbation treatments. For calculation of multipole i.e. charge, dipole, etc. at each atomic center of molecules, para-butyl-p’-cyano-biphenyl, GAMESS, an ab initio program, with 6-31G* basis set has been used. The stacking, in-plane and terminal interaction energies explain the liquid crystalline behaviour of the system.

An epidemiological study on delay in treatment initiation of cancer patients  [PDF]
Alok Kumar Dwivedi, Sada Nand Dwivedi, Suryanarayana Deo, Rakesh Shukla, Arvind Pandey, Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42012
Abstract: Early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment of cancer patients may improve survival and quality of life. Various measures of delay can be made during diagnosis and treatment initiation. Most of the studies were based on single type of cancer with different definitions and measurements of delay in diagnosis and treatment. Thus, it has been difficult to synthesize results and generalize to other types of cancer. The study proposes to measure total duration between onsets of symptom to start of treatment into three components, namely primary, secondary and tertiary delays. Primary delay is defined as onset of symptoms to contacting the first medical person, secondary delay is from first medical contact to confirmed diagnosis, and tertiary delay is from confirmed diagnosis to treatment initiation. The aim of this study is to determine factors associated with primary, secondary and tertiary delays in cancer patients. This study was planned as a cross-sectional study. Data was collected from patients admitted to the surgical wards of Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, New Delhi during 2006-2007. Gamma regression and quantile regressions at 25th, 50th and 75th percentile of each of the delays were used to determine related factors. A total of 403 patients were included in the analysis. The median tertiary delay was found almost two folds (59; Interquartile range: 26 - 101 days) than the primary and secondary delays. Extremity cancer patients had longest primary, secondary and tertiary delays. Shortest primary, secondary and tertiary delays were observed for gastrointestinal cancer, breast and genitourinary cancer respectively. There is an urgent need and scope to reduce delay at each level primary, secondary and tertiary delay. Intervention studies are needed through information, education and communication/screening programs to reduce the diagnostic and treatment delays in cancer patients.
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