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Osteoprotegerin Secretion by Mevastatin via p38MAPK and NF-kB  [PDF]
Helen Smith
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2012.22006
Abstract: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a protein produced by many cell types that has the remarkable property of inhibiting bone loss. It does this by binding to the key bone resorptive cytokine, receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL). This cytokine is produced mainly by osteoblastic cells and is instrumental in osteoclast differentiation. If the ratio of RANKL:OPG increases, bone resorption increases and results in bone loss in diseases such osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Hence, if drugs can be found that increase OPG, this will decrease the activity of osteoclasts and therefore bone resorption. Statins are cholesterol lowering drugs that have recently been shown to increase bone formation in rodents. It was hypothesised from this finding that this could be due to an increase in OPG production. If these commonly prescribed drugs could be used to prevent bone loss or to increase bone formation then this may prove a useful means of reducing fracture risk in patients. Treating Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells in vitro with mevastatin increased OPG production and secretion through the mevalonate pathway. A failure of geranylgeranylation of Rho and/or farnesylation of Ras proteins leads to an increase in PI-3K activation then AKT activation leading to several different signaling pathways such as MAPK’s and NF-kB. NF-kB and p38MAPK inhibitors prevented the statin stimulation of OPG but not the decrease in cell number, suggesting that statins regulate OPG secretion via PI-3K, p38MAPK and NF-kB.
Rainbows, Time Zones, and Other Mind-Dependent Objects: Making Sense of the Relevant Notions of “Mind-Dependence” in the Debate between Metaphysical Realists and Antirealists  [PDF]
Deborah C. Smith
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21006
Abstract: In a recent article, Sam Page distinguishes four kinds of mind-(in)dependence: ontological, causal, structural, and individuative. He argues that, despite the fact that the metaphysical realism/antirealism debate has been frequently characterized as a debate between those who accept and those who deny that the world is causally and/or structurally dependent on minds, many antirealists are primarily interested in defending the claim that the world is individuatively mind-dependent. In this article, I critically examine these differing senses of “mind-dependence” highlighting ways in which they remain ambiguous and identifying various entailment relations between them. I argue that there is reason to believe that ontological dependence, structural dependence, and the only sort of individuative dependence that is relevant to the metaphysical debate are coextensive notions. As such, any argument that succeeds in establishing that it is incoherent to suppose that everything is ontologically and/or structurally dependent thereby establishes the incoherence of metaphysical antirealism.
From Socrates to Satellites: iPad Learning in an Undergraduate Course  [PDF]
Jodie Wakefield, Dennie Smith
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.35094
Abstract: Finding, evaluating and using information are necessary skills for the 21st century college student to engage in critical thinking and problem-solving. This qualitative study was conducted during the fall of 2011 at a major research institution in an undergraduate face-to-face course entitled Multicultural Education. Professors designed a course to practice these skills outside and inside the classroom. Students were randomly assigned to the problem-solving class (17) and the traditional class (18) studying multicultural education for teacher education. The iPads were issued to the students in August of 2011 to be used not only in the Multicultural Education course, but students were also encouraged to use the devices in all of their courses throughout the fall and spring semesters. Students were expected to watch videos, read assignments and complete other course assignments before coming to class to engage in problem-solving using their iPads. This paper presents observational and survey data related to students and professor engaging in problem-solving activities.
Water Myths: The Illusion of Canada’s Endless Water Supply  [PDF]
Henry Gordon-Smith
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410093
Abstract: This paper explores the common misconception that Canada has an infinite supply of freshwater. The true amount of water availability in Canada is explored, and the location of the majority of Canada’s water supply is described. As a consequence of a more precise assessment of Canada’s actual hydrologic situation the paper seeks to dash the dangerous myth of Canada’s water inexhaustibility, which is straining the country’s precious resource increasingly. Finally, this paper discusses the major threats to Canada’s water supply, which are from both external factors as well as its internal sociopolitical weakness. A solution to these problems is considered.
Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS of Sudanese and Bantu Somali immigrant women living in Omaha, Nebraska  [PDF]
Shingairai Feresu, Lynette Smith
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.31011
Abstract: A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that had been translated into Nuer and Arabic. Women in this study had low levels of education, poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and safer sex practices, and poor attitudes to HIV/AIDS. They believe that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God, HIV-positive people should be separated from society, carrying a condom indicates having loose morals, women should not experience sexual pleasure, and men should decide when and how to have sexual intercourse. Education, gender, and cultural beliefs are critical in the spread of HIV. Efforts to educate immigrant and displaced populations, particularly women, are essential.
Epilepsy versus non-epileptic attack disorder: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge  [PDF]
Catherine Smith, Jason Ramtahal
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.21001
Abstract:

Epilepsy and non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) share a vast number of clinical features, however the aetiology and management are very different. Video-EEG is the gold standard diagnostic tool and relies on the occurrence of seizure activity during assessment to make a diagnosis. Added complexity arises from the co-existence of epilepsy and NEAD, occurring in a significant proportion of patients. Comprehensive assessment and investigation is therefore required to prevent gross mistreatment in this diagnostically difficult subgroup. We present a case of NEAD with co-existing epilepsy and the challenges that this may present in clinical practice.

Thematic and Lexical Repetition in a Contemporary Screenplay  [PDF]
Starling Hunter, Susan Smith
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.31002
Abstract:

Several works on film theory and screenwriting practice take up the question of repetition within narrative. However, few if any, have articulated theories about the relationship between the repetition of the words that comprise the screenplay itself and repetition of the themes that lend coherence to the narrative. In this study we address this gap in the screenwriting and film literature. Specifically, we analyze repetition of words and themes in the screenplay of Sunshine Cleaning, a critically-acclaimed independent film. Based on our survey of the literature, we expect and we find several varieties of repetition among words associated with the major themes in Sunshine Cleaning. This repetition includes but is not limited to polyptoton (words formed by inflections, declensions, and conjugations of a common stem), homonymy, paregmenon (words sharing a common derivation), and compounding (words formed by combining two or more words). We further expect and find that the repetition of words linked to themes is extensive and found in the large majority of the scenes of the screenplay. Finally, we expect and find that words associated with the themes are repeated far more frequently than in a random sample of screenplays contained within the Corpus of Contemporary American English. We conclude the paper with a discussion of our study’s implications for the art and craft of screenwriting.

“In Space” or “As Space”?: Spatial Autocorrelation Properties of the Earth’s Interior  [PDF]
Charles H. Smith
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.54036
Abstract:

In this analysis, natural systems are posed to subsystemize in a manner facilitating both structured information/energy sharing and an entropy maximization process projecting a three-dimensional, spatial outcome. Numerical simulations were first carried out to determine whether n × n input-output matrices could, once entropy-maximized, project a three-dimensional Euclidean metric. Only 4 × 4 matrices could; a small proportion passed the test. Larger proportions passed when grouped random patterns on and within two- and three-dimensional forms were tested. The pattern of structural zonation within the earth was then tested in analogous fashion using spatial autocorrelation measures, and for three time periods: current, 95 million years b.p. and 200 million years b.p. All expected results were obtained; not only do the geometries of zonation project a three-dimensional structure as anticipated, but also do secondary statistical measures reveal levels of equilibrium among the zones in all three cases that are nearly total, distinguishing them from simulations that do not incorporate a varying-surface zone-width element.

Novel method for determination of sodium in foods by thermometric endpoint titrimetry (TET)  [PDF]
Thomas Smith, Christian Haider
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.31B005
Abstract:

A novel yet simple, rapid and robust thermometric endpoint titration (TET) method for the determination of sodium in various foodstuffs is described. Sodium reacts exothermically with aluminium in the presence of an excess of potassium and fluoride ions to form NaK2AlF6 (“elpasolite”). This reaction forms the basis of a ro- bust, reliable analytical procedure suitable for routine process control. The reaction of calcium under similar conditions (to form KCaAlF6) suggests that potentially, calcium may interfere in the determination of sodium in some foodstuffs. Results of an investigation suggest that at molar ratios [Ca]/[Na] < 0.85, an error of <1% of the measured value of sodium is incurred.

Case Report: Propriospinal Myoclonus  [PDF]
Catherine Smith, Jason Ramtahal
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.36081
Abstract:

This report presents a case of propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) in a previously fit and well female patient who presented with truncal jerking movements when relaxed. Propriospinal myoclonus is a rare condition, of which 80% of the aetiology is idiopathic. It is characterised by involuntary jerking movements of the trunk due to spreading activity via intrinsic propriospinal pathways along the spinal cord. Polymyography is mandatory in the diagnosis of priopriospinal myoclonus however in discerning the differential diagnoses it is inferior to magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging. The management of propriospinal myoclonus is dependent on aetiology. Clonazepam has been shown to be effective in the treatment of idiopathic PSM for symptomatic relief.

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