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Molecular evolution of pathogenic bacteria based on rrsA gene
Aravind Setti,T A Phazna Devi,Smita C Pawar,G Rajesh
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Evolution of pathogens in prokaryotic bacteria was studied by 16srRNA genes. In this study rrsA genes of 45 bacteria were considered, which includes pathogens, non-pathogens and out-group bacteria. We considered non-pathogenic bacteria, for each class in bacterial classification, to support the pathogenic evolution. In this investigation, aligned nucleotide sequences of rrsA genes were used for Phylogenetic analysis and they have been clustered precisely. Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) methods were employed for the molecular evolution of pathogenic bacteria. The best-fit substitution model with the lowest Bayesian Information Criterion scores is considered to describe the substitution pattern the best, and non-uniformity of evolutionary rates among sites were modeled by using a discrete Gamma distribution. Nearest Neighbor Interchange (NNI) heuristic method was used to generate the tree for ML and Close Neighbor Interchange (CNI) on random trees search methods for MP. Further both the phylogenetic trees were statistically evaluated for accuracy by bootstrap value. Transition and transversion ratio of the rrsA genes have been estimated for the mutation frequency over the evolution by Maximum Composite Likelihood (MCL) bias and ML bias. Combined pathogenic and non pathogenic bacteria analysis reflected the clear diversity of bacteria over time and agrees with morphological and cytological data. These molecular evolution results should be useful to study the evolution pattern of pathogenic bacteria.
Extra Cellular Matrix Derived Metabolite Regulates Angiogenesis by FasL Mediated Apoptosis
Raj K. Verma, Venugopal Gunda, Smita C. Pawar, Yakkanti Akul Sudhakar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080555
Abstract: Object Antiangiogenic treatments are beginning to give promising outcomes in many vascular diseases including tumor angiogenesis. In this current study the antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic actions of α1(IV)NC1 and its N- and C- peptides α1S1(IV)NC1, α1S2(IV)NC1 were investigated in-vitro and in-vivo. Study Method Endothelial cells (ECs) were treated with α1(IV)NC1, α1S1(IV)NC1, α1S2(IV)NC1 and in-vitro proliferation, migration, tube formation and apoptotic assays were executed. FasL, Fas, Caspase-8, -3 and PARP activations were studied using immunoblotting analysis using specific antibodies. Also the in-vivo antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects were tested using α1(IV)NC1 in a mice model. Results Like α1(IV)NC1, its N- and C- terminal α1S2(IV)NC1 and α1S1(IV)NC1 domains posses anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic activity and inhibit ECs migration and tube formation in-vitro. Both α1S1(IV)NC1 and α1S2(IV)NC1 domains promote apoptosis by activating FasL and down stream apoptotic events including activation of caspase-8, -3 and PARP cleavage in a dose dependent manner in-vitro in ECs. Tumors in mice showed apoptotic TUNEL positive microvasculature upon α1(IV)NC1 treatment, indicating inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Further, the antitumor activity of α1(IV)NC1 was abrogated when caspase-3 inhibitor was used. These results conform additional properties of α1(IV)NC1 as an endogenous angioinhibitor that induces apoptosis in-vitro and in-vivo by activating FasL mediated caspase-3. Significance α1(IV)NC1 and its N- and C- terminal α1S1(IV)NC1 and α1S2(IV)NC1 domains also posses pro-apoptotic and angioinhibitory activity in-vitro and in-vivo. α1(IV)NC1 regulates tumor angiogenesis by activating FasL mediated apoptosis in-vitro and in-vivo. These results demonstrate that α1(IV)NC1 and its peptides inhibit neo-vascular diseases.
Simulation and Proportional Evaluation of AODV and DSR in Different Environment of WSN
Pranav M. Pawar,Smita Shukla,Pranav Kulkarni,Adishri Pujari
BVICAM's International Journal of Information Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Simulation and comparison of the routing protocols for network topology hold a significant position in the performance evaluation of wireless networks. This paper, discusses performance evaluation of Ad-hoc on demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), routing protocols for static WSN using NS-2. Energy efficiency, latency, throughput and fairness characteristics in different conditions are investigated under different load conditions on two-hop and multi-hop network. The comparison results reveal that AODV performs better in the network with strict requirement on time, whereas DSR is more adaptable in the networks with high throughputs and energy constraints.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOL)STANDL. LEAVES PARTS
Jayashree C. Pawar
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 2010,
Abstract: Lagenaria siceraria(Mol) Standl.is commomn plant in India. It is considered laxative, cardiotonic, diuretic, bitter, emetic, lessen inflammation. In the present study, crude petroleum ether(PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol extract (ME)of Leaves of Lagenaria siceraria have been evaluated for analgesic (100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and central nervous system (CNS)depressant activity (100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.).The analgesic activity was assayed in several experimental models: acetic acid induced writhing (chemically induced pain), hot plate, tail flick test (thermally induced pain). Among the three extracts, petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extract shows significant analgesic activity but Petroleum ether extract shows maximum analgesia among them. These statements indicate the presence of CNS active drugs present in leaf part of plant. The petroleum ether extract and methanolic extract significantly and in dose dependent manner reduce the nociception induced by acetic acid. In hot plate and tail flick test methanolic and petroleum ether extract shows more significant action than chloroform extract. In the study of the CNS-depressant effect, the methanolic extract significantly reduces spontaneous motor activity at higher doses than petroleum ether extract. The fall off time (motor coordination) was also decreased. A potentiation in the pentobarbitone-induced sleep due to the sedative effect of the methanolic extract was observed. The result shows that petroleum ether extract and methanolic extract shows analgesic and CNS-depressant activity may be because of presence of different chemical compounds present in that extracts. Further investigations are, however, necessary to explore mechanism(s) of action involved in these pharmacological activities.
Simultaneous Estimation and Validation of Pseudoephidrine Sulphate and Desloratidine from Bulk and Tablets as hydrotropic solubilizing agent
Smita Sharma,,Mukesh C. Sharma
Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: Hydrotropic solubilisation technique is one of them. In the present investigation hydrotropic solution of 8M urea has been employed as solubilizing agent to solubilization poorly water soluble drug Pseudoephidrine Sulphate, Desloratidine, from fine powder of its tablet dosage form for spectrophotometric determination in ultraviolet region.Materials & Methods: Pseudoephidrine Sulphate, Desloratidine shows maximum absorbance at resulting solutions were measured at 274.4 nm and 289.1nm. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The proposed method is new, simple, environment friendly, accurate and cost-effective and can be successfully employed in routine analysis of Pseudoephidrine Sulphate, Desloratidine in tablets.Results: The present paper describes application of hydrotropic solubilization phenomenon for the simultaneous estimation of Pseudoephidrine sulphate and Desloratidine in tablet dosage form by simultaneous equation method, and Multicomponent method. All two drugs showed good regression values at their respective wavelengths.Conclusion: The results of recovery study revealed that any small change in the drug concentration in the solution could be accurately determined by the proposed methods and low values of LOD and LOQ indicated good sensitivity of proposed methods.
Molecular Modeling Studies of Thiophenyl C-Aryl Glucoside SGLT2 Inhibitors as Potential Antidiabetic Agents
Mukesh C. Sharma,Smita Sharma
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/739646
Abstract: A QSAR study on thiophenyl derivatives as SGLT2 inhibitors as potential antidiabetic agents was performed with thirty-three compounds. Comparison of the obtained results indicated the superiority of the genetic algorithm over the simulated annealing and stepwise forward-backward variable method for feature selection. The best 2D QSAR model showed satisfactory statistical parameters for the data set (, , and pred_) with four descriptors describing the nature of substituent groups and the environment of the substitution site. Evaluation of the model implied that electron-rich substitution position improves the inhibitory activity. The good predictive 3D-QSAR models by k-nearest neighbor (kNN) method for molecular field analysis (MFA) have cross-validated coefficient value of 0.7663 and predicted value of 0.7386. The results have showed that thiophenyl groups are necessary for activity and halogen, bulky, and less bulky groups in thiophenyl nucleus enhanced the biological activity. These studies are promising for the development of novel SGLT2 inhibitor, which may have potent antidiabetic activity. 1. Introduction One of the main features of diabetes is the elevation of blood sugar with its deleterious consequences in a variety of tissues [1]. Thus, control of the plasma glucose level is of utmost importance in the treatment of this disease. In recent years, the idea that affecting glucose absorption in the intestine and/or the glucose reabsorption in the kidney might be a possible way to control the sugar level has evolved. Diabetes comprises a group of metabolic disorders characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disorders in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein that result in defects in secretion and action of insulin [2]. Dysfunction and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart, and the blood vessels are the usual complications of diabetes [3, 4]. Diabetes is mainly divided into four main types including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1), non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2), gestational diabetes, and other specific types [5]. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) accounts for almost 90% of diabetes cases, with the property of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction that induces hyperglycemia [6]. Medical complications associated with T2DM include cardiovascular disease, stroke, nephropathy, retinopathy, renal failure, and amputations of the extremities [7]. In recent years, much attention has been given to sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), mediators of reabsorption
Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review
Prahlad Gupta,Nidhi Gupta,Atish Prakash Pawar,Smita Shrishail Birajdar,Amanpreet Singh Natt,Harkanwal Preet Singh
ISRN Dentistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/519421
Abstract: Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. 1. Introduction To most people the term “sugar” refers to the common household foodstuff table sugar (sucrose). Yet sucrose is only one of many naturally occurring sugars used in the human diet. Technically the term “sugars” applies to two classifications of carbohydrates: free-form monosaccharides (simple sugars) which include the more common glucose, fructose, and galactose and disaccharides (two simple sugar molecules linked together) which include the most common sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Naturally occurring sugars are available in fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy foods. Sweeteners are added sugars that are used as ingredients to both satisfy our taste and in some cases provide added energy. Grouping sweeteners as “nutritive” or “nonnutritive” acknowledges a difference in the amount of energy provided by the sweetener. Nutritive sweeteners may be referred to as caloric and include sugars and sugar alcohols. Nonnutritive sweeteners offer no energy and can sweeten with little volume. Both sugar alcohols and nonnutritive sweeteners can replace the sugars and are sometimes referred to as sugar substitutes, sugar replacers, or alternative sweeteners [1]. We searched the pertinent literature in PubMed and MEDLINE databases by using key words such as sugar in dental caries, sugar substitute in dental caries, and various types of sugar in dental caries. 2. Sugar and Dental Caries Of the many factors that contribute to the development of dental caries, diet plays an important role. Fifty years ago dietary issues relevant to dental caries were largely concerned with dietary sugars. Although sugars are undoubtedly the most important dietary factors in the
Performance Measures of a Single a€“ Unit System Subject to Different Failure Modes with Operation in Abnormal Weather
D. Pawar,,S.C. Malik
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, performance measures of a single-unit system operating under two weather conditions – normal and abnormal are evaluated by using regenerative point technique. For this purpose a reliability model is developed in which unit fails completely either directly from normal mode or via partial failure. A single repair facility is provided immediately whenever needed and remains with the system in abnormal weather. The repair of the unit is done both at its partial and complete failure. However, server inspects the unit at its partial failure to see the possibility of on-line repair. If on-line repair of the unit is not possible, it is repaired in down state.The partially failed unit can work for the system. However, repair of the unit at its complete failure is done without inspection. The repair and inspection activities are stopped in abnormal weather while system works as usual. The unit works as new after repair. The time to change of weather conditions and time to failure of theunit is distributed exponentially whereas the distributions of inspection and repair time are taken as arbitrary. Numerical results for some performance measures of the system model are obtained for a particular case to depict their graphical behavior.
Windmill: The New Era Of Energy
Vijayanta Vasantrao Pawar,S. C. Shilwant
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A windmill is a machine which converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. The history of wind power shows a general evolution from the use of simple, light devices driven by aerodynamic drag forces; to heavy, material-intensive drag devices; to the increased use of light, materialefficient aerodynamic lift devices in the modern era. Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups 1) horizontal-axis variety 2) vertical-axis design. There are certain advantages and disadvantages of Windmills
Dantrolene in the Treatment of Refractory Hyperthermic Conditions in Critical Care: A Multicenter Retrospective Study  [PDF]
Shonali C. Pawar, Henry Rosenberg, Robert Adamson, Jennifer A. LaRosa, Ronald Chamberlain
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.54013
Abstract: Purpose: To examine the use of intravenous dantrolene in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Medical Records of patients treated with intravenous dantrolene between 2007 and 2012 at 6 teaching hospitals were reviewed. Temperature, muscle rigidity, creatine kinase levels, and mortality were assessed in association with dantrolene use. Results: Twenty-five patients received intravenous dantrolene, 9 patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), 8 with hyperthermia due to sepsis, 4 with NMS and sepsis, 2 for malignant hyperthermia (MH), and 2 with hypermetabolic syndrome associated with juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis. Dantrolene was administered as a bolus of 1 - 3 mg/kg. Core temperature decreased after dantrolene administration in all groups but significant only for MH, NMS cases (Pre 102.3 ± 0.9°F vs. Post 99.5 ± 0.9°F; p < 0.001), in Sepsis cases (Pre 104.3 ± 1.5°F vs. Post 100.6 ± 1.0°F; p < 0.001). Mean rigidity scores decreased in all groups but significant only for NMS cases, and mean CK did not change significantly in any group. Conclusion: Dantrolene was associated with reductions in temperature and rigidity in hyperthermia of diverse origins in patients admitted to Intensive care settings.
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