Abstract:
Background Gold salts has previously been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but have been replaced by biologicals such as TNF-α inhibitors. The mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory effect of metallic gold ions are still unknown, however, recent data showed that charged gold atoms are released from pure metallic gold implants by macrophages via a dissolucytosis membrane, and that gold ions are taken up by local macrophages, mast cells and to some extent fibroblasts. These findings open the question of possible immunomodulatory effects of metallic gold and motivate efforts on a deeper understanding of the effect of metallic gold on key inflammatory cells as macrophages. Methods Human macrophage cells (cell line THP-1) were grown on gold foils and intracellular uptake was analysed by autometallography. The impact of phagocytised gold ions on viability of THP-1 cells was investigated by trypan blue staining and TUNEL assay. The global gene expression profile of THP-1 cells after incorporation of gold ions was studied using microarray analysis comprising approximately 20,000 genes. The gene expression data was confirmed by measurement of secreted proteins. Results Autometallography showed intracellular uptake of gold ions into THP-1 cells. No significant effect on viability of THP-1 cells was demonstrated. Our data revealed a unique gene expression signature of dissolucytotic THP-1 cells that had taken up gold ions. A large number of regulated genes were functionally related to immunomodulation. Gold ion uptake induced downregulation of genes involved in rheumatoid arthritis such as hepatocyte growth factor, tenascin-C, inhibitor of DNA binding 1 and 3 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Conclusion The data obtained in this study offer new insights into the mode of action of gold ions and suggest for the investigation of effects on other key cells and a possible future role of metallic gold as implants in rheumatoid arthritis or other inflammatory conditions.

Abstract:
Despite the good prognosis of erythema migrans (EM), some patients have persisting symptoms of various character and duration post-treatment. Several factors may affect the clinical outcome of EM, e.g. the early interaction between Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the host immune response, the B. burgdorferi genotype, antibiotic treatment as well as other clinical circumstances. Our study was designed to determine whether early cytokine expression in the skin and in peripheral blood in patients with EM is associated with the clinical outcome.

Abstract:
This study included 999 individuals 60-96 years of age living in the south eastern part of Sweden. Data collection was carried out during the years of 2001-2003. We measured the amount of regular light and/or intense outdoor recreational PA performed during the last year and determined the probability of performing PA as a function of 10 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors.Our results suggest that being independent physically and healthy enough to manage one's personal hygiene and having access to areas for country walks were the most important factors associated with the probability of engaging in outdoor recreational PA for both men and women. Despite the level of performance being almost equal for the sexes as two-thirds of both had performed outdoor recreational PA during the preceding year more factors, i.e., living alone, being unable to cover an unexpected cost, fear of being violated, and fear of falling, were associated with the possibilities of engaging in outdoor recreational PA among women. Also increasing age seems to affect activities among women negatively to a higher extent than men.Men and women seem to have different opportunities and needs with respect to performing PA. These considerations do not seem to be sufficiently taken into account today and improvements could be made concerning e.g., health-promoting activities suggested to the elderly by healthcare personnel and spatial planning within society. Promoting outdoor recreational PA that has restorative effects on well-being needs to focus on activities which are attractive and affordable for the majority of both men and women.Being active throughout the majority of one's lifetime has an important influence on overall health and well-being. This paper has used the widely known definition of physical activity (PA) as "any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level" [1]. PA has been found to prevent ma

Abstract:
Let $G$ be the Lie group given by the semidirect product of $R^2$ and $R^+$ endowed with the Riemannian symmetric space structure. Let $X_0, X_1, X_2$ be a distinguished basis of left-invariant vector fields of the Lie algebra of $G$ and define the Laplacian $\Delta=-(X_0^2+X_1^2+X_2^2)$. In this paper we consider the first order Riesz transforms $R_i=X_i\Delta^{-1/2}$ and $S_i=\Delta^{-1/2}X_i$, for $i=0,1,2$. We prove that the operators $R_i$, but not the $S_i$, are bounded from the Hardy space $H^1$ to $L^1$. We also show that the second order Riesz transforms $T_{ij}=X_i\Delta^{-1}X_j$ are bounded from $H^1$ to $L^1$, while the Riesz transforms $S_{ij}=\Delta^{-1}X_iX_j$ and $R_{ij}=X_iX_j\Delta^{-1}$ are not.

Abstract:
We study several fundamental operators in harmonic analysis related to Jacobi expansions, including Riesz transforms, imaginary powers of the Jacobi operator, the Jacobi-Poisson semigroup maximal operator and Littlewood-Paley-Stein square functions. We show that these are (vector-valued) Calder\'on-Zygmund operators in the sense of the associated space of homogeneous type, and hence their mapping properties follow from the general theory. Our proofs rely on an explicit formula for the Jacobi-Poisson kernel, which we derive from a product formula for Jacobi polynomials.

Abstract:
Let G be the Lie group R^2\rtimes R^+ endowed with the Riemannian symmetric space structure. Let X_0, X_1, X_2 be a distinguished basis of left-invariant vector fields of the Lie algebra of G and define the Laplacian \Delta=-(X_0^2+X_1^2+X_2^2). In this paper, we show that the maximal function associated with the heat kernel of the Laplacian \Delta is bounded from the Hardy space H^1 to L^1. We also prove that the heat maximal function does not provide a maximal characterization of the Hardy space H^1.

Abstract:
We investigate in detail the mapping properties of the maximal operator associated with the heat-diffusion semigroup corresponding to expansions with respect to multi-dimensional standard Laguerre functions.

Abstract:
In recent articles it was proved that when $\mu$ is a finite, radial measure in $\real^n$ with a bounded, radially decreasing density, the $L^p(\mu)$ norm of the associated maximal operator $M_\mu$ grows to infinity with the dimension for a small range of values of $p$ near 1. We prove that when $\mu$ is Lebesgue measure restricted to the unit ball and $p<2$, the $L^p$ operator norms of the maximal operator are unbounded in dimension, even when the action is restricted to radially decreasing functions. In spite of this, this maximal operator admits dimension-free $L^p$ bounds for every $p>2$, when restricted to radially decreasing functions. On the other hand, when $\mu$ is the Gaussian measure, the $L^p$ operator norms of the maximal operator grow to infinity with the dimension for any finite $p> 1$, even in the subspace of radially decreasing functions.

Abstract:
The heat kernel associated with the setting of the classical Jacobi polynomials is defined by an oscillatory sum which cannot be computed explicitly, in contrast to the situation for the two other classical systems of orthogonal polynomials. We deduce sharp estimates giving the order of magnitude of this kernel, for type parameters $\alpha,\beta \ge -1/2$. As an application of the upper bound obtained, we show that the maximal operator of the multi-dimensional Jacobi heat semigroup satisfies a weak type $(1,1)$ inequality. We also obtain sharp estimates of the Poisson-Jacobi kernel.