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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " Sivatharsiny Thavarajah "
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Genetic Background May Confer Susceptibility to PTC in Benign Multinodular Thyroid Disease  [PDF]
Sivatharsiny Thavarajah, Frank Weber
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.36128
Abstract: Purpose: The incidence of hyperplastic thyroid nodular disease has been consistently rising over the last decades. In addition, unsuspected papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) can be found in up to 34% of patients operated for benign thyroid lesions. PTC tends to occur multi-focally and is commonly of polyclonal origin. We set out to test the hypothesis that in benign thyroid disease, a unique genetic signature can already be identified in the benign pathology, which is associated with a susceptibility of the thyroid tissue to neoplastic transformation in the context of additional growth promoting stimuli. Patients and Methods: We obtained a set of 23 samples from patients with multinodular goiter (MNG), 12 of whom also harbored an unsuspected PTC. We used global gene expression analysis to evaluate for dissimilarities in the gene expression patterns between these two groups. We also compared these patterns to the profiles of 3 normal thyroid and 7 PTC samples. Results: We were able to accurately distinguish between hyperplastic nodules of patients with multinodular goiter and those that were associated with a PTC. One of the strongest differentially expressed genes, CDC42, has been implicated to respond to environmental factors such as UVB radiation and might point to novel factors contributing to PTC genesis in the setting of pre-existing benign proliferative disease. Conclusion: While the comparison between histologically identical samples cannot distinguish the two groups of goiters, unsupervised or supervised approaches allowed us to identify a molecular signature associated with PTC susceptibility in multinodular goiter.
Inaccuracies in Phytic Acid Measurement: Implications for Mineral Biofortification and Bioavailability  [PDF]
Pushparajah Thavarajah, Dil Thavarajah
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51005

Biofortification of commonly eaten staple food crops with essential mineral micronutrients is a potential sustainable solution to global micronutrient malnutrition. Because phytic acid (PA; 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis myo-inositol) reduces mineral micronutrient bioavailability, reduction of PA levels could increase the bioavailability of biofortified iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). PA is viewed as an anti-nutrient, yet PA and other inositol phosphates have also demonstrated positive health benefits. Phytic acid analysis in the agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences is typically carried out by colorimetry and chromatographic techniques. In addition, advanced techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy have also been used in phytic acid analysis. The colorimetric analysis may overestimate PA levels and synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques may not detect very low levels of inositol phosphates. This short communication discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each widely used phytic acid analysis method, and suggests high performance anion exchange (HPAE) chromatography with conductivity detection (CD) based analysis can achieve greater accuracy for the identification and quantification of inositol phosphates. Accurate characterization and quantification of PA and inositol phosphates will inform PA reduction and biofortification efforts, allowing retention of the benefits of non-phytic inositol phosphates for both plants and humans.

Phytoestrogen Enriched Tofu from Soybean Meal  [PDF]
Su Hyeon Hwang, Pushparajah Thavarajah, Dilrukshi Thavarajah
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.53034

Isoflavone, a group of phytoestrogen, reduces postmenopausal symptoms and the risk of osteoporosis of women. Glycosidic forms of isoflavones are presented in non-fermented soyfoods such as tofu and they are less bioavailable than the aglycone isoflavones. Aglycone forms of isoflavones or more bioavailable forms can be increased by acid hydrolysis during tofu processing. The present study investigated the possibility of increasing the aglycone forms of isoflavones by acid hydrolysis. We used five types of tofu in this study: soybean tofu with hydrolysis, soybean meal tofu with hydrolysis, soybean tofu in general process, soybean meal tofu in general process, and commercial tofu. Defatted soybean meal was used as the major ingredient in the tofu which was made by using the new method—acid hydrolysis. To identify the isoflavone quantities in all five types of tofu, high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis was employed. The genistein ratio between hydrolyzed tofu and standard tofu was 1:1-8, and the daidzein ratio between hydrolyzed tofu and standard tofu was 1:6-12. The five types of tofu were analyzed for the crude protein and micronutrients such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) by the modified Kjeldahl method and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES), respectively. The mean crude protein concentration of hydrolyzed tofu

Changes in Inositol Phosphates in Low Phytic Acid Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Lines during Germination and in Response to Fertilization  [PDF]
Dil Thavarajah, Pushparajah Thavarajah, Darshika Amarakoon, Abby Fenlason, Casey R. Johnson, Phil Knutson, Thomas D. Warkentin
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42033
Abstract: Inositol phosphates are the main form of phosphorous (P) storage in legume seeds. Mutants low in inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), also known as phytic acid (PA), have been developed to increase iron (Fe) bioavailability and reduce P waste to the environment. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) inositol-P form changes during germination, and 2) the effect of P fertilizer application on seed PA, total P, and Fe concentration of three field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars and two low-PA lines grown under greenhouse conditions. Low-PA field pea lines clearly had lower PA (1.3 - 1.4 mg·g-1) than cultivars (3.1 - 3.7 mg·g-1). Phytic acid concentration in both cultivars and low-PA lines decreased during germination, but tended to increase seven days after germination. Levels of inositol-3-phosphate-phosphate (IP3-P; 0.6 mg·g-1) and inorganic P (1.8 - 2.0 mg·g-1) were higher in low-PA lines than in the field pea cultivars. Reduction of PA in low-PA line seeds may reduce seed Fe and total P concentrations, as levels in the low-PA lines (37 - 42 mg·kg-1 Fe; 4003 - 4473 mg·kg-1 total P) were typically less than in field pea cultivars (37 -
Phenolic Compound Profiles of Two Common Beans Consumed by Rwandans  [PDF]
Owino Joseph, Mukashyaka Phelomene, Ndayisaba Helene, Habimana Valens, Ongol Martin Patrick, Dil Thavarajah, Pushparajah Thavarajah
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520310
Abstract: Legumes are high-protein, medium-energy and micronutrient-rich food consumed in many parts of the world including Africa. This study evaluated the levels of specific phenolic compounds in three legumes. Two varieties of the common bean, (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.) from Rwanda were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The phenolic compounds were identified by comparison to the chromatographic retention times and UV spectra of known reference compounds. This study results clearly shows the presence of 11 different phenolic compounds in common beans: gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (–)-epicatechin, caffeic acid, o-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, 4-hydrobenzoic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and vanillic acid. The concentration ranged from 0.59 to 2.27 mg/kg for epicatechin. High levels of catechin (13.5 to 57.9 mg/kg) ferulic acid (26.1 to 47.6 mg/kg) were also observed. Therefore, the results of this study show that Rwandan common beans are a good source of phenolic acids in particular catechins and ferulic acid.
The Soil Microbial Community and Grain Micronutrient Concentration of Historical and Modern Hard Red Spring Wheat Cultivars Grown Organically and Conventionally in the Black Soil Zone of the Canadian Prairies
Alison G. Nelson,Sylvie A. Quideau,Brenda Frick,Pierre J. Hucl,Dil Thavarajah,M. Jill Clapperton,Dean M. Spaner
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3030500
Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies in the diet of many people are common and wheat is a staple food crop, providing a carbohydrate and micronutrient source to a large percentage of the world’s population. We conducted a field study to compare five Canadian red spring wheat cultivars (released over the last century) grown under organic and conventional management systems for yield, grain micronutrient concentration, and soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile. The organic system had higher grain Zn, Fe, Mg and K levels, but lower Se and Cu levels. There was no trend in the results to suggest that modern western Canadian hard red spring cultivars have lower grain micronutrient content than historical cultivars. Wheat cultivar choice is important for maximizing grain nutrient levels, which was influenced by management system. It is evident that the emphasis on elevated grain quality in the western Canadian hard red spring class has resulted in the retention of micronutrient quality characters. Three fungal PLFAs were indicators for the organic system, and all three of these indicators were positively correlated with grain Cu concentration. In the organic system, percent arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were negatively correlated with grain Zn and Fe concentrations, and positively correlated with grain Mn, Cu, K concentrations and grain yield. The organic system had higher levels of fungi in the soil, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Organic management practices appear to result in elevated levels of grain micronutrient concentration. The hard red spring breeding effort in and for the black soil zone of the northern Great Plains also appears to have led to no diminishment of grain micronutrient concentration. It is evident that both the agronomic system and breeding strategies in this region can be exploited for future increases in grain micronutrient concentration.
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