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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 362 matches for " Siobhan Bacon "
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Circulating CD36 Is Reduced in HNF1A-MODY Carriers
Siobhan Bacon, Ma P. Kyithar, Jasmin Schmid, Andre Costa Pozza, Aase Handberg, Maria M. Byrne
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074577
Abstract: Introduction Premature atherosclerosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) accounts for approximately 2% of all diabetes, with mutations in the transcription factor; hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A) accounting for the majority of MODY cases. There is somewhat limited data available on the prevalence of macrovascular disease in HNF1A-MODY carriers with diabetes. Marked insulin resistance and the associated dyslipidaemia are not clinical features of HNF1A-MODY carriers. The scavenger protein CD36 has been shown to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, largely through its interaction with oxidised LDL. Higher levels of monocyte CD36 and plasma CD36(sCD36) are seen to cluster with insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine levels of sCD36 in participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes and to compare them with unaffected normoglycaemic family members and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We recruited 37 participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes and compared levels of sCD36 with BMI-matched participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normoglycaemic HNF1A-MODY negative family controls. Levels of sCD36 were correlated with phenotypic and biochemical parameters. Results HNF1A-MODY participants were lean, normotensive, with higher HDL and lower triglyceride levels when compared to controls and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. sCD36 was also significantly lower in HNF1A-MODY participants when compared to both the normoglycaemic family controls and to lean participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion In conclusion, sCD36 is significantly lower in lean participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes when compared to weight-matched normoglycaemic familial HNF1A-MODY negative controls and to lean participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lower levels of this pro-atherogenic marker may result from the higher HDL component in the lipid profile of HNF1A-MODY participants.
Serum levels of pancreatic stone protein (PSP)/reg1A as an indicator of beta-cell apoptosis suggest an increased apoptosis rate in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A-MODY) carriers from the third decade of life onward
Siobhan Bacon, Ma Peyh Kyithar, Jasmin Schmid, Syed R Rizvi, Caroline Bonner, Rolf Graf, Jochen HM Prehn, Maria M Byrne
BMC Endocrine Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6823-12-13
Abstract: We analysed serum PSP/reg1A levels and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with HNF1A-MODY, glucokinase (GCK-MODY), and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A control group of normoglycaemic subjects was also analysed.PSP/reg1A serum levels were significantly elevated in HNF1A-MODY (n?=?37) subjects compared to controls (n?=?60) (median?=?12.50?ng/ml, IQR?=?10.61-17.87?ng/ml versus median?=?10.72?ng/ml, IQR?=?8.94-12.54?ng/ml, p?=?0.0008). PSP/reg1A correlated negatively with insulin levels during OGTT, (rho?=??0.40, p?=?0.02). Interestingly we noted a significant positive correlation of PSP/reg1A with age of the HNF1A-MODY carriers (rho?=?0.40 p?=?0.02) with an age of 25?years separating carriers with low and high PSP/reg1A levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also had elevated serum levels of PSP/reg1A compared to controls, however this was independent of the duration of diabetes.Our data suggest that beta cell apoptosis contributes increasingly to the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY in patients 25?years and over. PSP/reg1A may be developed as a serum marker to detect increased beta-cell apoptosis, or its therapeutic response.
“The Mad”, “The Bad”, “The Victim”: Gendered Constructions of Women Who Kill within the Criminal Justice System
Siobhan Weare
Laws , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/laws2030337
Abstract: Women commit significantly fewer murders than men and are perceived to be less violent. This belief about women’s non-violence reflects the discourses surrounding gender, all of which assume that women possess certain inherent essential characteristics such as passivity and gentleness. When women commit murder the fundamental social structures based on appropriate feminine gendered behaviour are contradicted and subsequently challenged. This article will explore the gendered constructions of women who kill within the criminal justice system. These women are labelled as either mad, bad or a victim, by both the criminal justice system and society, depending on the construction of their crime, their gender and their sexuality. Symbiotic to labelling women who kill in this way is the denial of their agency. That is to say that labelling these women denies the recognition of their ability to make a semi-autonomous decision to act in a particular way. It is submitted that denying the agency of these women raises a number of issues, including, but not limited to, maintaining the current gendered status quo within the criminal law and criminal justice system, and justice both being done, and being seen to be done, for these women and their victims.
On the Apparent Differences between Contemporary Pragmatists: Richard Rorty and the New Pragmatism
Michael Bacon
Humanities , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/h1030229
Abstract: Throughout its history pragmatism has been criticised for failing to account for the roles truth and objectivity play in our lives and inquiries. Pragmatists have long sought to guard against this objection, but recently some proponents have identified a form of pragmatism which they think is deficient in the manner identified by its critics. This has led them to claim that pragmatism should be understood as falling into two distinct varieties, and to argue for the superiority of the one over the other. In this paper I argue that behind the apparent differences between contemporary pragmatists lies greater agreement than is commonly thought. Taking Richard Rorty to represent what some find unattractive in their philosophy, I claim that there is little if any substantive difference between pragmatists about the concepts of truth and objectivity. Further, Rorty’s work shows that it is misleading to distinguish pragmatists in terms of whether they highlight the constraints imposed by social practices or whether they seek to free us from such constraint; properly understood, freedom and constraint are a necessary condition of one another.
Realism and Political Theory: Review of Raymond Geuss’ ‘Philosophy and Real Politics’
Michael Bacon
Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies (JCGS) , 2010,
The Stability of Quantum Concatenated Code Hamiltonians
D. Bacon
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.042324
Abstract: Protecting quantum information from the detrimental effects of decoherence and lack of precise quantum control is a central challenge that must be overcome if a large robust quantum computer is to be constructed. The traditional approach to achieving this is via active quantum error correction using fault-tolerant techniques. An alternative to this approach is to engineer strongly interacting many-body quantum systems that enact the quantum error correction via the natural dynamics of these systems. Here we present a method for achieving this based on the concept of concatenated quantum error correcting codes. We define a class of Hamiltonians whose ground states are concatenated quantum codes and whose energy landscape naturally causes quantum error correction. We analyze these Hamiltonians for robustness and suggest methods for implementing these highly unnatural Hamiltonians.
Simon's Algorithm, Clebsch-Gordan Sieves, and Hidden Symmetries of Multiple Squares
D. Bacon
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The first quantum algorithm to offer an exponential speedup (in the query complexity setting) over classical algorithms was Simon's algorithm for identifying a hidden exclusive-or mask. Here we observe how part of Simon's algorithm can be interpreted as a Clebsch-Gordan transform. Inspired by this we show how Clebsch-Gordan transforms can be used to efficiently find a hidden involution on the group G^n where G is the dihedral group of order eight (the group of symmetries of a square.) This problem previously admitted an efficient quantum algorithm but a connection to Clebsch-Gordan transforms had not been made. Our results provide further evidence for the usefulness of Clebsch-Gordan transform in quantum algorithm design.
Quantum Computational Complexity in the Presence of Closed Timelike Curves
Dave Bacon
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.70.032309
Abstract: Quantum computation with quantum data that can traverse closed timelike curves represents a new physical model of computation. We argue that a model of quantum computation in the presence of closed timelike curves can be formulated which represents a valid quantification of resources given the ability to construct compact regions of closed timelike curves. The notion of self-consistent evolution for quantum computers whose components follow closed timelike curves, as pointed out by Deutsch [Phys. Rev. D {\bf 44}, 3197 (1991)], implies that the evolution of the chronology respecting components which interact with the closed timelike curve components is nonlinear. We demonstrate that this nonlinearity can be used to efficiently solve computational problems which are generally thought to be intractable. In particular we demonstrate that a quantum computer which has access to closed timelike curve qubits can solve NP-complete problems with only a polynomial number of quantum gates.
Operator Quantum Error Correcting Subsystems for Self-Correcting Quantum Memories
Dave Bacon
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.012340
Abstract: The most general method for encoding quantum information is not to encode the information into a subspace of a Hilbert space, but to encode information into a subsystem of a Hilbert space. Recently this notion has led to a more general notion of quantum error correction known as operator quantum error correction. In standard quantum error correcting codes, one requires the ability to apply a procedure which exactly reverses on the error correcting subspace any correctable error. In contrast, for operator error correcting subsystems, the correction procedure need not undo the error which has occurred, but instead one must perform correction only modulo the subsystem structure. This does not lead to codes which differ from subspace codes, but does lead to recovery routines which explicitly make use of the subsystem structure. Here we present two examples of such operator error correcting subsystems. These examples are motivated by simple spatially local Hamiltonians on square and cubic lattices. In three dimensions we provide evidence, in the form a simple mean field theory, that our Hamiltonian gives rise to a system which is self-correcting. Such a system will be a natural high-temperature quantum memory, robust to noise without external intervening quantum error correction procedures.
Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers
D. Bacon
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on decoherence due to a collective coupling between the system and its environment. Universal quantum computation on such collective decoherence decoherence-free encodings is demonstrated. Rigorous definitions of control and the use of encoded universality in quantum computers are addressed. Explicit gate constructions for encoded universality on ion trap and exchange based quantum computers are given. In the second part of the thesis we examine physical systems with error correcting properties. We examine systems that can store quantum information in their ground state such that decoherence processes are prohibited via energetics. We present the theory of supercoherent systems whose ground states are quantum error detecting codes and describe a spin ladder whose ground state has both the error detecting and correcting properties. We conclude by discussing naturally fault-tolerant quantum computation.
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